Advertisement

Risk factors in pigeons genetically selected for increased atherosclerosis susceptibility

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      A strain of genetically selected White Carneau pigeons (WC-2) with increased atherosclerosis at similar plasma cholesterol concentrations as randomly bred (RBWC) pigeons was studied to evaluate the commonly known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Indicators for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, “stress”, hyperuricemia and hypothyroidism were determined.
      In pigeons fed the atherogenic diet, major differences in atherosclerosis were seen between WC-2 and RBWC. WC-2 pigeons had more aortic surface covered with plaque and greater concentrations of aortic nonesterified cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, uronic acid, and hydroxyproline, as well as a greater prevalence and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis. For WC-2 and RBWC pigeons we found similar levels of hypercholesterolemia, mean blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations. .In addition, several other physiological variables such as plasma uric acid, calcium and phosphorus concentrations, adrenal and thyroid weights which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis were similar. The findings indicate that the differences in extent and severity of atherosclerosis between WC-2 and RBWC cannot be explained by differences in the risk factors studied. Possible genetic regulation of atherosclerosis by mechanisms operable in the arterial wall of WC-2 pigeons is suggested.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Fredrickson D.S.
        • Gotto A.M.
        • Levy R.I.
        Stanbury J.B. Wijngaarden J.B. Fredrickson D.S. The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Diseases. 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY1972: 592-604
        • Goldstein J.L.
        • Brown M.S.
        Hyperlipidemia in coronary heart disease — A biochemical genetic approach.
        J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1975; 85: 15-25
        • Clarkson T.B.
        • Lofland Jr., H.B.
        • Bullock B.C.
        • Goodman H.O.
        Genetic control of plasma cholesterol — Levels and atherosclerosis in squirrel monkeys.
        Arch. Path. 1971; 92: 37-45
        • Wagner W.D.
        • Clarkson T.B.
        Mechanisms of the genetic control of plasma cholesterol in selected lines of show racer pigeons.
        in: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.145. 1974: 1050-1057
        • Wagner W.D.
        • Clarkson T.B.
        • Feldner M.A.
        • Prichard R.W.
        The development of pigeon strains with selected atherosclerosis characteristics.
        Exp. Mol. Path. 1973; 19: 304-319
        • Clarkson T.B.
        • Prichard R.W.
        • Lofland Jr., H.B.
        • Goodman H.O.
        The pigeon as a laboratory animal.
        Lab. Animal Care. 1963; 13: 767-780
        • Rush R.L.
        • Leon L.
        • Turrell J.
        Automated simultaneous cholesterol and triglyceride determination on AutoAnalyzer II instrument.
        in: Barton E.C. Technicon International Congress. Advances in Automated Analysis. Vol. 1. FL/Thurman Associates, Miami, FL1970: 503
        • Fiske C.H.
        • SubbaRow Y.
        The colorimetric determination of phosphorus.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1925; 106: 375
        • Wagner W.D.
        • Clarkson T.B.
        • Foster J.
        Contrasting effects of ethane-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate (EHDP) on the regression of two types of dietary-induced atherosclerosis.
        Atherosclerosis. 1977; 27: 419-435
        • Wagner W.D.
        • Clarkson T.B.
        Effect on regression potential of atherosclerosis produced by intermittent or continuous hypercholesterolemia.
        Atherosclerosis. 1977; 27: 369-381
        • Roden L.
        • Baker J.R.
        • Cifonew J.A.
        • Mathews M.B.
        Isolation and characterization of connective tissue polysaccharides.
        Meth. Enzymol. 1972; 28: 73
        • Bitter T.
        • Muir H.M.
        A modified uronic acid carbazole reaction.
        Anal. Biochem. 1962; 4: 330-334
        • Steele R.G.D.
        • Torrie J.H.
        Comparisons involving two samples means.
        in: Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, New York, Toronto, London1960: 67-87 (Chapter 5)
        • Gordon T.
        • Kannel W.B.
        Predisposition to atherosclerosis in the head, heart, and legs.
        J. Amer. Med. Ass. 1972; 221: 661-666
        • Shurtleff D.
        Some characteristics related to the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death: Framingham Study, 18-year Follow-up.
        in: Kannel W.B. Gordon T. The Framingham Study — An Epidemiological Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease. DHEW Publication No. 74. NIH, 1974: 599
        • Miettinen O.S.
        Risk indicators for coronary heart disease.
        Hartford Hosp. Bull. 1973; 4: 64
        • Miller G.J.
        • Miller N.E.
        Plasma high-density-lipoprotein concentration and development of ischemic heart disease.
        Lancet. 1975; 1: 16-19
        • Carvalho A.C.A.
        • Colman R.W.
        • Lees R.S.
        Platelet function in hyperlipoproteinemia.
        New Engl. J. Med. 1974; 290: 434-438
        • Whyte H.M.
        The relative importance of the major risk factors in atherosclerotic and other diseases.
        Aust. New Zealand J. Med. 1976; 6: 387-393
      1. Editorial, Can I avoid a heart attack?.
        Lancet. 1974; 1: 605
        • Corday E.
        • Corday S.R.
        Can the natural progression of the atherosclerotic lesion be controlled?.
        in: Russek H.I. Cardiovascular Problems. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD1976: 117-122
        • Harlan Jr., W.R.
        • Graham J.B.
        • Estes E.H.
        Familial hypercholesterolernia — A genetic and metabolic study.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 1966; 45: 77-110
        • Srinivasan S.R.
        • Dolan P.
        • Radhakrishnamurthy B.
        • Berenson G.S.
        Isolation of lipoprotein-acid mucopolysaccharide complexes from fatty streaks of human aortas.
        Atherosclerosis. 1972; 16: 95
        • Camejo G.
        • Mateu L.
        • Lalaguna F.
        • Padrón R.
        • Waich S.
        • Acquatella H.
        • Vega Y.H.
        Structural individuality of human serum LDL associated with a differential affinity for a macromolecular component of the arterial wall.
        Artery. 1976; 2: 79-97
        • Pitts L.L.
        • Rudel L.L.
        • Bullock B.C.
        • Clarkson T.B.
        Sex differences in the relationship of low density lipoproteins to coronary atherosclerosis in Macaca fascicularis.
        in: Fed. Proc.35. 1976: 293 (3)
        • Rudel L.L.
        • Pitts II, L.L.
        Male-female variability in the dietary cholesterol-induced hyperlipoproteinemia of Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus monkeys).
        J. Lipid Res. 1978; (In press)
      2. Rudel, L.L., Wagner, W.D., Nohlgren, S. and Lewis, J., Characterization of the dietary cholesterol-induced hyperlipoproteinemiain randomly bred and a selected strain of White Carneau pigeons, In preparation.