Research paper| Volume 42, ISSUE 2-3, P205-219, April 1982

Download started.


Serum lipoproteins of healthy persons fed a low-fat diet or a polyunsaturated fat diet for three months

A comparison of two cholesterol-lowering diets
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      In a controlled 16-week trial we have compared the effects on some risk factors for atherosclerosis of 2 cholesterol-lowering diets, one low in total fat and low in polyunsaturated fat (LO) and one moderate in total fat but high in polyunsaturated fat (MOD) as recommended by various advisory councils. All 35 volunteers were given diet MOD during a 2.5-week control period. This diet provided 31% of the daily energy intake (energy%) as total fat; one-third of the fatty acids were polyunsaturated (PUFA). VLDL plus LDL cholesterol decreased by 0.66 mmol/1 during the control period while the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level was unchanged. Total serum triglycerides decreased by 0.33 mmol/l.
      After the control period the subjects were randomized into 2 groups, one of which continued on diet MOD, while the other group received the low-fat diet LO, providing 2.1 energy% as total fat and 4 energy% as PUFA. All food was prepared daily and weighed out for each individual in amounts appropriate to the individual's energy needs. Nutrient intakes were checked by 7-day records and by chemical analysis of double portions. The diets contained the same amounts of cholesterol, phytosterols, oligosaccharides and other nutrients known to affect serum lipid levels.
      Total serum cholesterol increased by 0.21 ± 0.41 mmol/l on control diet MOD during the test period of 13 weeks. 0.09 ± 0.11 mmol/l of this was due to HDL-C. Total serum triglycerides remained constant during the test period in group MOD.
      On diet LO total serum cholesterol remained stable during the test period, but HDL-C was lowered by −0.06 ± 0.20 mmol/1. The difference in HDL-C between the diet groups was mainly located in HDL2. Total serum triglycerides increased by +0.32 ± 0.31 mmol/l in group LO; the increase in VLDL triglycerides was +0.22 ± 0.18 mmol/l.
      The depression of HDL on diet LO was also reflected in the ratio of HDL to total cholesterol which decreased by −0.02 ± 0.05 on diet LO, and was unchanged on diet MOD, and in the ratio of apo A1 to apo B (6% decrease on diet LO and constant on diet MOD).
      Combination of these data with those from a preceding study [Brussaard et al., Atherosclerosis, 36 (1980) 515] leads to the following conclusions:
      • 1.
        (1) Both diets lower total serum cholesterol levels when compared with the habitual diets of affluent communities.
      • 2.
        (2) The high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet causes lower HDL and higher fasting VLDL triglyceride levels than the recommended moderate-fat-high-PUFA diet.



      CVD, cardiovascular disease (), HDL, high density lipoprotein (), LDL, low density lipoprotein (), VLDL, very low density lipoprotein (), Energy, percent of daily energy intake (), PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids ()
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Dayton S.
        • Pearce M.L.
        • Hashimoto S.
        • Dixon W.J.
        • Tomiyasu U.
        A Controlled Clinical Trial of a Diet High in Unsaturated Fat.
        American Heart Association Monograph, No. 25. 1969; (New York)
        • Miettinen M.
        • Turpeinen 0.
        • Karvonen M.J.
        • Elosuo R.
        • Paavilainen E.
        Effect of cholesterollowering diet on mortality from coronary heart-disease and other causes.
        Lancet. 1972; ii: 835
        • Connor W.E.
        • Connor S.L.
        The key role of nutritional factors in the prevention of coronary heart disease.
        Prev. Med. 1972; 1: 49
        • Brussaard J.H.
        • Dallinga-Thie G.
        • Groot P.H.E.
        • Katan M.B.
        Effects of amount and type of dietary fat on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man—A controlled 8-week trial.
        Atherosclerosis. 1980; 36: 515
        • Antonis A.
        • Bersohn L
        The influence of diet on serum triglycerides in South African White and Bantu prisoners.
        Lancet. 1961; i: 3
        • Hautvast J.G.A.J.
        Ontwikkeling van een systeem om voedingsenquêtes met behulp van de komputer to verwerken.
        Voeding. 1975; 36: 356
        • Stasse-Wolthuis M.
        • Albers H.F.F.
        • Van Jeveren J.G.C.
        • De Jong J.W.
        • Hautvast J.G.A.J.
        • Hermus R.J.J.
        • Katan M.B.
        • Brydon W.G.
        • Eastwood M.A.
        Influence of dietary fiber from vegetables and fruits, bran or citrus pectin on serum lipids, fecal lipids, and colonic function.
        Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 1980; 33: 1745
        • Rockerbie R.A.
        • Dobson R.D.
        • Frohlich J
        Gas-chromatographic analysis of patterns of fatty acids of cholesteryl esters and phosphatidylcholine.
        Clin. Chem. 1979; 25: 1411
        • Knuiman J.T.
        • West C.E.
        • Hermus R.J.J.
        • Hautvast J.G.A.J.
        Fatty acid composition of cholesteryl esters in serum in boys from 16 developing and developed countries.
        Atherosclerosis. 1980; 37: 617
        • Cummings J.H.
        • Jenkins D.J.A.
        • Wiggins H.S.
        Measurement of the mean transit time of dietary residue through the human gut.
        Gut. 1976; 17: 210
        • Huang T.C.
        • Chen C.P.
        • Wefler V.
        • Raftery A.
        A stable reagent for the Liebermann-Burchard reaction—Application to rapid serum-cholesterol determination.
        Anal. Chem. 1961; 33: 1405
        • Abell L.L.
        • Levy B.B.
        • Brody B.B.
        • Kendall F.E.
        A simplified method for the estimation of total cholesterol in serum and a demonstration of its specificity.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1952; 195: 357
        • Burstein M.
        • Samaille J.
        Sur un dosage rapide du cholestérol lie aux α- et β-lipoprotéines du serum.
        Clin. Chim. Acta. 1960; 5: 609
        • Van der Haar F.
        • Van Gent C.M.
        • Schouten F.M.
        • Van der Voort H.A.
        Methods for the estimation of high density cholesterol, composition between two laboratories.
        Clin. Chim. Acta. 1978; 88: 469
        • Hainline Jr., A.
        • Cooper G.R.
        • Olansky A.S.
        • Winn C.L.
        • Miller D.T.
        CDC Survey of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Measurements—A Report.
        Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA,1980
        • Utermann G.
        • Albrecht G.
        • Steinmetz A.
        Polymorphism of apolipoprotein E, Part 1 (Methodological aspects and diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinemia type III without ultracentrifugation).
        Clin. Gen. 1978; 14: 351
        • Kane J.P.
        A rapid electrophoretic technique for identification of subunit species of apoproteins in serum lipoproteins.
        Anal. Biochem. 1973; 53: 350
        • Redgrave T.G.
        • Roberts D.C.K.
        • West C.E.
        Separation of plasma lipoproteins by density gradient ultracentrifugation.
        Anal. Biochem. 1975; 65: 42
        • Terpstra A.H.M.
        • Woodward C.J.H.
        • Sanchez-Muñiz F.J.
        Improved techniques for the separation of serum lipoproteins by density gradient ultracentrifugation—Visualization by prestaining and rapid separation of serum lipoproteins from small volumes of serum.
        Anal. Biochem. 1981; 111: 149
        • Soloni F.G.
        Simplified manual micromethod for determination of serum triglycerides.
        Clin. Chem. 1971; 17: 529
        • Laurell C.B.
        Electro-immuno assay.
        Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1972; : 21
        • Albers J.J.
        • Whal P.W.
        • Cabana V.G.
        • Hazzard W.R.
        • Hoover J.J.
        Quantitation of apolipoprotein-At of human high density lipoproteins.
        Metabolism. 1976; 25: 633
        • Stasse-Wolthuis M.
        • Hautvast J.G.A.J.
        • Hermus R.J.J.
        • Katan M.B.
        • Bausch J.E.
        • Rietberg-Brussaard J.H.
        • Velema J.P.
        • Zondervan J.H.
        • Eastwood M.A.
        • Brydon W.G.
        The effect of a natural high-fiber diet on serum lipids, fecal lipids and colonic function.
        Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 1979; 32: 1881
        • Keys A.
        • Anderson J.T.
        • Grande F.
        Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet.
        Metabolism. 1965; 14: 747
        • Hegsted D.M.
        • McGandy R.B.
        • Myers M.L.
        • Stare F.J.
        Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man.
        Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 1965; 17: 281
        • Ernst N.
        • Fischer M.
        • Bowen P.
        • Schaefer E.J.
        • Levy R.I.
        Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins after a modified fat diet.
        Lancet. 1980; ii: 111
        • Vessby B.
        • Boberg J.
        • Gustafsson J.B.
        • Karlström B.
        • Lithell H.
        • Östlund-Lundquist A.M.
        Reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I concentrations by a lipid-lowering diet.
        Atherosclerosis. 1980; 35: 21
        • Blum C.B.
        • Levy R.I.
        • Eisenberg S.
        • Hall M.
        • Goebel R.H.
        • Berman M.
        High density lipoprotein metabolism in man.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1977; 60: 795
        • Schonfeld G.
        • Weidmann S.W.
        • Witztum J.L.
        • Bowen R.M.
        Alterations in levels and interrelations of plasma apolipoprotein induced by diet.
        Metabolism. 1976; 25: 261
        • Levy R.J.
        • Lees R.S.
        • Fredrickson D.S.
        The nature of pre-beta (very low-density) lipoproteins.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1966; 45: 63
        • Ernst N.
        • Fisher M.
        • Smith W.
        • Gordon T.
        • Rifkind B.M.
        • Little J.A.
        • Mishkel M.A.
        • Williams O.D.
        The association of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with dietary intake and alcohol consumption.
        Circulation. 1980; 62: 41
        • Knuiman J.T.
        • Hermus R.J.J.
        • Hautvast J.G.A.J.
        Serum total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations in rural and urban boys from 16 countries.
        Atherosclerosis. 1980; 36: 529
        • Albers J.J.
        • Cheung M.C.
        • Hazzard W.R.
        High-density lipoproteins in myocardial infarction survivors.
        Metabolism. 1978; 27: 479
        • Gordon T.
        • Castelli W.P.
        • Hjørtland M.C.
        • Kannel W.B.
        • Dawber T.R.
        High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart disease.
        Amer. J. Med. 1977; 62: 707
        • Tall A.R.
        • Small D.M.
        Body cholesterol removal—Role of plasma high-density lipoprotein.
        Adv. Lipid Res. 1980; 17: 2
        • Krauss R.M.
        • Lindgren F.T.
        • Wood P.D.
        • Haskell W.L.
        • Albers J.J.
        • Cheung M.C.
        Differential increases in plasma high density lipoprotein subfractions and apolipoproteins (apo-LP) in runners.
        Circulation. 1977; 56: III-4
        • Anderson D.W.
        HDL cholesterol-The variable components.
        Lancet. 1978; i: 819
        • Mancini M.
        • Mattock M.
        • Rabaya E.
        • Chait A.
        • Lewis B.
        Studies of the mechanisms of carbohydrate-induced lipaemia in normal man.
        Atherosclerosis. 1973; 17: 445
        • Beveridge J.M.R.
        • Jagannathan S.N.
        • Ford Connell W.
        The effect of the type and amount of dietary fat on the level of plasma triglycerides in human subjects in the postabsorptive state.
        Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol. 1964; 42: 999
        • Durnin J.V.G.A.
        • Rahaman M.M.
        The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness.
        Brit. J. Nutr. 1967; 21: 681
        • Durnin J.V.G.A.
        • Womersley J.
        Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness—Measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years.
        Brit. J. Nutr. 1974; 32: 77