Sustained alterations in lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations dependent on the daily distribution of lipid intake

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      Since the fat content of a single meal influences chylomicron size and hence intestinal apoprotein synthesis, we determined the chronic effects of the daily distribution of fat intake on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Eight normal male subjects ingested 100 g of fat (a) as a bolus at the evening meal (SL) or (b) equally distributed over 4 meals (q4h) (DL). Each diet was consumed for 7 days; studies were performed 14 days apart using a crossover design and paired comparisons. Nutrient intake and body weight were held constant. At the end of the DL dietary regimen, fasting plasma concentrations of TC, LDL-C and HDL-C were significantly increased as compared to the SL phase of study (TC: 174 ± 2.9 (mean ± SEM) vs 161 ± 2.7; LDL-C: 108 ± 3.2 vs 98 ± 3.3 and HDL-C: 53 ± 1.1 vs 48 ± 0.8) (P < 0.05). The consumption of 100 g/day of fat in several small meals results in a sustained increase in LDL-C and HDL-C. This may be due to increased synthesis of lipoprotein components (e.g. apoprotein A-I) or to altered metabolism of intestinal and hepatic TG-rich lipoproteins dependent on size, number and apoprotein composition.


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