Advertisement

Sustained alterations in lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations dependent on the daily distribution of lipid intake

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      Since the fat content of a single meal influences chylomicron size and hence intestinal apoprotein synthesis, we determined the chronic effects of the daily distribution of fat intake on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Eight normal male subjects ingested 100 g of fat (a) as a bolus at the evening meal (SL) or (b) equally distributed over 4 meals (q4h) (DL). Each diet was consumed for 7 days; studies were performed 14 days apart using a crossover design and paired comparisons. Nutrient intake and body weight were held constant. At the end of the DL dietary regimen, fasting plasma concentrations of TC, LDL-C and HDL-C were significantly increased as compared to the SL phase of study (TC: 174 ± 2.9 (mean ± SEM) vs 161 ± 2.7; LDL-C: 108 ± 3.2 vs 98 ± 3.3 and HDL-C: 53 ± 1.1 vs 48 ± 0.8) (P < 0.05). The consumption of 100 g/day of fat in several small meals results in a sustained increase in LDL-C and HDL-C. This may be due to increased synthesis of lipoprotein components (e.g. apoprotein A-I) or to altered metabolism of intestinal and hepatic TG-rich lipoproteins dependent on size, number and apoprotein composition.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Bearnot H.R.
        • Glickman R.M.
        • Weinberg L.
        • Green P.H.R.
        • Tall A.R.
        Effect of biliary diversion on rat mesenteric lymph apolipoprotein A-1 and high density lipoprotein.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1982; 69: 210
        • Green P.H.R.
        • Tall A.R.
        • Glickman R.M.
        Rat intestine secretes discoid high density lipoprotein.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1978; 61: 528
        • Green P.H.R.
        • Glickman R.M.
        • Saudek C.D.
        • Blum C.B.
        • Tall A.R.
        Human intestinal lipoproteins — Studies in chyluric subjects.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1979; 64: 233
        • Lewis B.
        • Chait A.
        • February A.W.
        • Mattock M.
        Functional overlap between ‘chylomicra’ and ‘very low density lipoproteins’ of human plasma during alimentary lipaemia.
        Atherosclerosis. 1973; 17: 455
        • Fraser R.
        • Cliff W.J.
        • Courtice F.C.
        The effect of dietary fat load on the size and composition of chylomicrons in thoracic duct lymph.
        Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 1968; 53: 390
        • Kay R.M.
        • Rao S.
        • Arnott C.
        • Miller N.E.
        • Lewis B.
        Acute effects of the pattern of fat ingestion on plasma high density lipoprotein components in man.
        Atherosclerosis. 1980; 36: 567
      1. 65th edition. Manual of Laboratory Operations: Lipid Research Clinics Program, Vol. 1, Lipid and Lipoprotein Analysis. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C1974 (DHEW Publication No. [NIH] 75–628)
        • Warnick G.R.
        • Albers J.J.
        Heparin-Mn2+ quantitation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol — An ultracentrifugation procedure for lipemic samples.
        Clin. Chem. 1978; 24: 900
        • Morin R.J.
        • Elms N.J.
        Rapid microanalysis of cholesterol in bile and serum by gas chromatography.
        Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1975; 5: 52
        • Eggstein M.
        • Kreutz F.H.
        Eine neue Bestimmung der Neutralfette in Blutserum and Gewebe.
        Klin. Wschr. 1966; 44: 262
        • Curry M.D.
        • Alaupovic P.
        • Svenram C.A.
        Determination of apolipoprotein A and its constitutive A-I and A-II polypeptides by separate electroimmunoassays.
        Clin. Chem. 1976; 22: 315
        • Albers J.J.
        • Wahl P.W.
        • Cabana V.G.
        • Hazzard W.R.
        • Hoover J.J.
        Quantitation of apolipoprotein A-I of human plasma high density lipoproteins.
        Metabolism. 1976; 25: 633
        • Ockner R.K.
        • Hughes F.B.
        • Isselbacher K.J.
        Very low density lipoprotein in intestinal lymph — Origin, composition and role in lipid transport in the fasting state.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1969; 48: 2079
        • Windmueller H.G.
        • Levy R.I.
        Production of β-lipoprotein by intestine in the rat.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1968; 243: 4878
        • Keys A.
        • Anderson J.T.
        • Grande F.
        Serum cholesterol responses to changes in the diet, Part 1 (Iodine value of dietary fat versus 2S-P).
        Metabolism. 1965; 14: 747
        • Glickman R.M.
        • Green P.H.R.
        The intestine as a source of apolipoprotein A-I.
        in: 65th edition. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA). 74. 1977: 2569
        • Hamilton R.L.
        • Williams M.C.
        • Fielding C.J.
        • Havel R.J.
        Discoidal bi-layer structure of nascent high density lipoproteins from perfused rat liver.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1976; 58: 667
        • Kane J.P.
        • Hardman D.A.
        • Paulus H.E.
        Heterogenicity of apolipoprotein B — Isolation of a new species from human chylomicrons.
        in: 65th edition. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA). 77. 1980: 2465
        • Malloy M.J.
        • Kane J.P.
        • Hardman D.A.
        • Hamilton R.L.
        • Dalal K.B.
        Normotriglyceridemic abetalipoproteinernia — Absence of the B-100 apolipoprotein.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1981; 67: 1441
        • Sigurdsson G.
        • Nicoll A.
        • Lewis B.
        Conversion of very low density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein — A metabolic study of apolipoprotein B kinetics in human subjects.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1975; 56: 1481
        • Berman M.
        • Hall M.
        • Levy R.I.
        • Eisenberg S.
        • Bilheimer D.W.
        • Phair R.D.
        • Goebel R.H.
        Metabolism of apoB and apoC lipoproteins in man — Kinetic studies in normals and in hyperlipoproteinemics.
        J. Lipid Res. 1978; 19: 38
        • Turner P.R.
        • Miller N.E.
        • Cortese C.
        • Hazzard W.
        • Coltart J.
        • Lewis B.
        Splanchnic metabolism of plasma apolipoprotein B — Studies of artery-hepatic vein differences of mass and radiolabel in fasted human subjects.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1981; 67: 1678
        • Janus E.D.
        • Nicoll A.M.
        • Turner P.R.
        • Magill P.
        • Lewis B.
        Kinetic bases of the primary hyperlipidaemias — Studies of apolipoprotein B turnover in genetically defined subjects.
        Europ. J. Clin. Invest. 1980; 10: 161
        • Quarfordt S.H.
        • Hanks J.
        • Shelburne F.
        • Schirmer B.
        Differing uptake of emulsion triglyceride by the fed and fasted rat liver.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1982; 69: 1092
        • Windier E.
        • Chao Y.
        • Havel R.J.
        Regulation of the hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the rat.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1980; 255: 8303