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Marine lipid concentrate and atherosclerosis in the rabbit model

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      Abstract

      Twenty-seven New Zealand white rabbits underwent balloon de-endothelialization of the aorta and iliac arteries while consuming a 2% cholesterol, 10% peanut oil rabbit chow. Ten of these rabbits were fed 1 ml of concentrated marine fish lipid (MaxEpaTm) daily. Six weeks after de-endothelialization, angiography of the treated arteries was performed and histologic cross-sections of the terminal aorta were measured with a planimeter. Iliac artery luminal diameters were also measured at consecutive 3-mm divisions from the aortic bifurcation and found to have a mean lumen diameter of 1.60 ±0.08 mm in the marine lipid-supplemented group (M) and 1.38 ± 0.12 mm in the control group (C) (P < 0.001). Analysis of variance on individual segmental diameters confirmed this difference. However, neither the angiographic diameters nor histologic, cross-sectional, luminal areas of the terminal aorta were different between groups. Instead, the mean cross-sectional area of the terminal aortic wall was significantly greater in the marine lipid-fed group (4.4 ± 1.2 mm2 in M and 3.1 ± 0.6 mm2 in C, P < 0.01). In addition, the vessel wall area showed a positive correlation with red blood cell (RBC) incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (r = 0.82, P < 0.005) in both groups. In the M group, RBC eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acids increased 100% and 650%, respectively, over baseline. We conclude that marine fish lipids (1) are incorporated into rabbit RBC cell membranes during feeding, (2) increase vessel wall thickness of the distal aorta in proportion to the docosahexaenoic acid present, without compromising the luminal area, and (3) provide mild sparing of the luminal diameters of more distal arteries in this model of atherosclerosis.

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