Advertisement

Trans unsaturated fatty acids in plasma phospholipids and coronary heart disease: a case-control study

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      A high intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) has been shown to have an undesirable effect on serum lipid profiles and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels and may thereby increase the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a study in CHD patients, and measured the TFA concentration of the plasma phospholipid fraction. Comparison was made between a case group with angiographically documented severe CHD (>80% stenosis in one coronary vessel, n = 83) and a control group of patients who had just minor stenosis on the coronary angiography (<50% stenosis in all three major vessels, n = 78). All subjects were under 68 years of age and were prestratified on age, gender and smoking habits. The two groups were comparable according to the prestratification criteria, body mass index, blood pressure, number of cigarettes smoked and total fat intake. Controls had higher plasma HDL levels (P < 0.001) and lower, albeit not significantly lower, (P = 0.07) plasma LDL levels. No significant correlations were found between percentages of TFAs in plasma phospholipids and plasma LDL or HDL cholesterol levels. Of the major fatty acid classes, only the percentage of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in cases (46.2 ± 0.92%) than in controls (45.8 ± 1.07% (means ± S.D.)). The difference in total TFA content between cases and controls (0.32 ± 0.02% versus 0.35 ± 0.02%) was −0.03% (P = 0.2). For the specific TFAs C16:1n − 7tr, C18:1n − 9tr and C18:2n − 6tr, just minor differences were found. Adjusted odds ratios for tertiles of TFA percentages were 0.56 (0.25 – 1.23) and 0.76 (0.36 – 1.61) for the highest and middle tertile compared to the lowest. These findings do not support an association between TFA intake and risk for coronary heart disease.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Mensink RP
        • Katan MB
        Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects.
        N Engl J Med. 1990; 323: 439
        • Katan MB
        • Mensink RP
        Isomeric fatty acids and serum lipoproteins.
        Nutr Rev. 1992; 50: 46
        • Troisi R
        • Willett WC
        • Weiss ST
        Trans fatty acid intake in relation to serum lipid concentrations in adult men.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 56: 1019
        • Zock PL
        • Katan MB
        Hydrogenation alternatives: effects of trans fatty acids and stearic acid versus linoleic acid on serum lipids and lipoproteins in humans.
        J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 399
        • Nestel P
        • Noakes M
        • Belling B
        • McArthur R
        • et al.
        Plasma lipoprotein lipid and Lp(a) changes with substitution of elaidic acid for oleic acid in the diet.
        J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 1029
        • Lichtenstein AH
        • Ausman LM
        • Carraxo W
        • Jenner JL
        • Ordovas JM
        • Schaefer EJ
        Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic effect of corn oil in humans. Hydrogenation, trans fatty acids, and plasma lipids.
        Arterioscler Thromb. 1993; 13: 154
        • Judd JT
        • Clevidence A
        • Muesing RA
        • Wittes J
        • Sunkin ME
        • Podczasy JJ
        Dietary trans fatty acids: effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of healthy men and women.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 861
        • Mensink RP
        • Zock PL
        • Katan MB
        • Hornstra G
        Effect of dietary cis and trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein(a) levels in humans.
        J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 1493
        • Willett WC
        • Stampfer MJ
        • Manson JE
        • et al.
        Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women.
        Lancet. 1993; 341: 581
        • Ascherio A
        • Hennekens CH
        • Buring JE
        • Master C
        • Stampfer MJ
        • Willett WC
        Trans fatty acids intake and risk of myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 1994; 89: 94
        • McKeigue P
        Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease: weighing the evidence against hardened fat (commentary).
        Lancet. 1995; 345: 269
        • Bligh ED
        • Dyer WJ
        A rapid method for total lipid extraction and purification.
        Can J Biochem Physiol. 1959; 37: 911
        • Kaluzny MA
        • Duncan LA
        • Merritt MV
        • Epps DE
        Rapid separation of lipid classes in high yield and purity using bonded phase columns.
        J Lipid Res. 1985; 26: 135
        • Mensink RP
        • Hornstra G
        The proportion of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in serum triacylglycerols or platelet phospholipids as an objective indicator of their short-term intake in healthy men.
        Br J Nutr. 1995; 73: 605
        • Sullivan DR
        • Kruijswijk Z
        • West CE
        • Kohlmeier M
        • Katan MB
        Determination of serum triglycerides by an enzymatic method not affected by free glycerol.
        Clin Chem. 1985; 31: 1227
        • Warnick GR
        • Benderson J
        • Albers JJ
        Dextran sulfate Mg precipitation procedure for quantitation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
        Clin Chem. 1982; 28: 1379
        • Friedewald WT
        • Levy R
        • Fredrickson DS
        Estimation of the concentration of LDL-cholesterol in plasma without the use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.
        Clin Chem. 1972; 18: 499
      1. 7th edn. BMDP statistical software manual version 7.0. 1992 (California)
        • Katan MB
        • Zock PL
        • Mensink RP
        Trans fatty acids and their effects on lipoproteins in humans.
        Annu Rev Nutr. 1995; 15: 473
        • Hunter JE
        • Applewhite TH
        Reassessment of trans fatty acid availability in the US diet.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 54: 363
        • Longnecker MP
        Do trans fatty acids in margarine and other foods increase the risk of coronary heart disease?.
        Epidemiology. 1993; 4: 492
        • Aro A
        • Kardinaal AFM
        • Salminen I
        • et al.
        Adipose tissue isomeric trans fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in nine countries: the EURAMIC study.
        Lancet. 1995; 345: 273
        • Roberts TL
        • Wood DA
        • Riemersma RA
        • Gallagher PJ
        • Lampe FC
        Trans isomers of oleic and linoleic acids in adipose tissue and sudden cardiac death.
        Lancet. 1995; 345: 278
        • Thomas LH
        • Winter JA
        • Scott RG
        Concentration of 18:1 and 16:1 trans unsaturated fatty acids in the adipose body tissue of decendents dying of ischaemic heart disease compared with controls: analysis by gas liquid chromatography.
        J Epidemiol Commun Health. 1983; 37: 16
        • Siguel EN
        • Lerman RH
        Trans fatty acid patterns in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease.
        Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71: 916
        • Koletzko B
        Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturates and growth in man.
        Acta Paediatr. 1992; 81: 302
        • Willett WC
        • Ascherio A
        Trans fatty acids: are the effects only marginal? (commentary).
        Am J Publ Health. 1994; 84: 722
        • Michels K
        • Sacks F
        Trans fatty acids in European margarines (letter to the editor).
        N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 541