Advertisement

Plasma cholesteryl ester synthesis, cholesteryl ester transfer protein concentration and activity in hypercholesterolemic women: effects of the degree of saturation of dietary fatty acids in the fasting and postprandial states

      Abstract

      Hypercholesterolemic women (n = 19) sequentially maintained on a long-term saturated (SAT) or a polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid-rich diet, respectively, were studied in the fasting state and after a meal rich in SAT or PUFA. When apo B-containing lipoprotein was excluded from plasma the in vitro HDL-14C-cholesterol esterification rate was identical for the saturated (SAT) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid diets, and did not increase during the postprandial period. Rates of transfer of 14C-cholesteryl ester to apo B-containing lipoproteins from HDL were also similar for both diets in the fasting state and increased to the same extent in the postprandial period in parallel with the rise in plasma triglycerides. When transfer data were related to the plasma concentration of apo B, the gain of cholesteryl ester by the triglyceride-containing particles (VLDL + LDL) also increased in the postprandial period to a similar extent for both diets. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay was similar during both experimental diets, although greater in the postprandial period for the PUFA diet. The rate limiting factor for CETP-mediated transfer of HDL-derived cholesteryl ester (CE) was the plasma triglyceride concentration, that is, the content of triglycerides per lipoprotein particle and the quantity of TG-containing particles (VLDL + LDL). In contrast, the fatty acid composition of these particles had less effect on CETP-mediated CE transfer.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Lagrost L
        Regulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity: review of in vitro and in vivo studies.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994; 1215: 209-236
        • Fielding CJ
        • Fielding PE
        Molecular physiology of reverse cholesterol transport.
        J Lipid Res. 1995; 36: 211-228
        • Quintão ECR
        Is reverse cholesterol transport a misnomer for suggesting its role in the prevention of atheroma formation?.
        Atherosclerosis. 1995; 116: 1-14
        • Grass DS
        • Saini U
        • Felkner RH
        • et al.
        Transgenic mice expressing both human apolipoprotein B and human CETP have a lipoprotein cholesterol distribution similar to that of normolipidemic humans.
        J Lipid Res. 1995; 36: 1082-1091
        • Guérin M
        • Dolphin PJ
        • Talussot C
        • Gardette J
        • Berthézène F
        • Chapman MJ
        Pravastatin modulates cholesteryl ester transfer from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins and lipoprotein subspecies profile in familiat hypercholesterolemia.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995; 15: 1359-1368
        • Bagdade JD
        • Ritter MC
        • Davidson M
        • Subbaiah PV
        Effect of marine lipids on cholesteryl ester transfer and lipoprotein composition in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
        Arterioscler Thromb. 1992; 12: 1146-1152
        • Fielding CJ
        • Havel RJ
        • Todd KM
        • et al.
        Effects of dietary cholesterol and fat saturation on plasma lipoproteins in an ethnically diverse population of healthy young men.
        J Clin Invest. 1995; 95: 611-618
        • Cox C
        • Mann J
        • Sutherland W
        • Chisholm A
        • Skeaff M
        Effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins in persons with moderately elevated cholesterol levels.
        J Lipid Res. 1995; 36: 1787-1795
        • Quig DW
        • Zilversmit DB
        Plasma lipid transfer activities.
        Annu Rev Nutr. 1990; 10: 169-193
        • Abbey M
        • Nestel PJ
        Plasma cholesterol ester transfer protein activity is increased when trans-elaidic acid is substituted for cis-oleic acid in the diet.
        Atherosclerosis. 1994; 106: 99-107
        • Jiang XC
        • Agellon LB
        • Walsh A
        • Breslow JL
        • Tall A
        Dietary cholesterol increases transcription of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene in transgenic mice.
        J Clin Invest. 1992; 90: 1290-1295
        • Quinet EM
        • Agellon LB
        • Kroon PA
        • et al.
        Atherogenic diet increases cholesteryl ester transfer protein messenger RNA levels in rabbit liver.
        J Clin Invest. 1990; 85: 357-363
        • Jiang XC
        • Moulin P
        • Quinet E
        • Goldberg IJ
        • Yacoub LK
        Mammalian adipose tissue and muscle are major sources of lipid transfer protein mRNA.
        J Biol Chem. 1991; 266: 4631-4639
        • Quinet E
        • Tall A
        • Ramakrishnan R
        • Rudel L
        Plasma lipid transfer protein as a determinant of the atherogenicity of monkey plasma lipoproteins.
        J Clin Invest. 1991; 87: 1559-1566
        • Hannuksela M
        • Marcel YL
        • Kesaniemi YA
        • Savolainen MJ
        Reduction in the concentration and activity of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein by alcohol.
        J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 737-744
        • Moulin P
        • Appel GB
        • Ginsberg HN
        • Tall AR
        Increased concentration of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein in nephrotic syndrome: role in dyslipidemia.
        J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 1817-1822
        • Bhatnagar D
        • Durrington PN
        • Channon KM
        • Prais H
        • Mackness MI
        Increased transfer of cholesteryl esters from high density lipoproteins to low density lipoproteins in patients with angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease.
        Atherosclerosis. 1993; 98: 25-32
        • Dobiasova M
        • Stribrna J
        • Sparks DL
        • Pritchard PH
        • Frohlich JJ
        Cholesterol esterification rates in very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein-depleted plasma: relation to high density lipoprotein subspecies, sex, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease.
        Arterioscler Thromb. 1991; 11: 64-70
        • Tall A
        • Sammett D
        • Granot E
        Mechanisms of enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer from high density lipoproteins to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.
        J Clin Invest. 1986; 77: 1163-1172
        • Ritter MC
        • Bagdade JD
        Contribution of glycaemic control, endogenous lipoproteins and cholesteryl ester transfer protein to accelerated cholesteryl ester transfer in IDDM.
        Eur J Clin Invest. 1994; 24: 607-614
        • Mann CJ
        • Yen FT
        • Grant AM
        • Bihain BE
        Mechanism of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer in hypertriglyceridemia.
        J Clin Invest. 1991; 88: 2059-2066
        • Eisenberg S
        Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters.
        J Lipid Res. 1985; 26: 487-494
        • Lagrost L
        Differential effects of cis and trans fatty acid isomers, oleic and elaidic acids, on the cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992; 1124: 159-162
        • Lagrost L
        • Florentin E
        • Dangremont VG
        • et al.
        Evidence for nonesterified fatty acids as modulators of neutral lipid transfers in normolipidemic human plasma.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995; 15: 1388-1396
        • Bachorik PS
        • Albers J
        Precipitation methods for quantification of lipoproteins.
        Methods Enzymol. 1986; 129: 78-100
        • Friedewald WT
        • Levy RI
        • Fredrickson DS
        Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.
        Clin Chem. 1972; 18: 499-502
        • Dobiasova M
        • Stribrna J
        • Pritchard PH
        • Frohlich JJ
        Cholesterol esterification rate in plasma depleted of very low and low density lipoproteins is controlled by the proportion of HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses: study in hypertensive and normal middle aged and septuagenarian men.
        J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 1411-1418
        • Vessby B
        • Gustafsson I-B
        • Boberg J
        • Karlstrom B
        • Lithell H
        • Werner I
        Substituting polyunsaturated for saturated fat as single a change in a Swedish diet: effects on serum lipoprotein metabolism and glucose tolerance in patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia.
        Eur J Clin Invest. 1980; 10: 193-202
        • Murakami T
        • Michelagnoli S
        • Longhi R
        • et al.
        Triglycerides are major determinants of cholesterol esterification/transfer and HDL remodelling in human plasma.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995; 15: 1819-1828
        • Liu XQ
        • Bagdade JD
        Neutral lipid mass transfer among lipoproteins in plasma from normolipidemic subjects is not an equimolar heteroexchange.
        J Lipid Res. 1995; 36: 2574-2579
        • Ginsberg HN
        • Karmally W
        • Barr SL
        • Johnson C
        • Holleran S
        • Ramakrisnan R
        Effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids within the guidelines of the AHA step 1 diet on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in normal males.
        Arterioscler Thromb. 1994; 14: 892-901
        • Hegsted DM
        • Aussman LM
        • Johnson JA
        • Dallal GE
        Dietary fat and serum lipids: an evaluation of the experimental data.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 57: 875-883
        • Keys AJ
        • Anderson T
        • Grande F
        Serum cholesterol responses to changes in diet. The effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man.
        Metab Clin Exp. 1965; 14: 759-765
        • Oh SY
        • Monaco PA
        Effect of dietary cholesterol and degree of fat unsaturation on plasma lipid levels, lipoprotein composition, and fecal steroid excretion in normal young adult men.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1985; 42: 399-413
        • Mata P
        • Alvarez-sala LA
        • Rubio MJ
        • Nuno J
        • De Oya MD
        Effects of long-term monounsaturated- vs. polyunsaturated-enriched diets on lipoproteins in healthy men and women.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 55: 846-850
        • Salomaa V
        • Rasi V
        • Pekkanen J
        • et al.
        The effects of saturated fat and n-6 polyunsaturated fat on postprandial lipemia and hemostatic activity.
        Atherosclerosis. 1993; 103: 1-11
        • Castro GR
        • Fielding CJ
        Effects of postprandial lipemia on plasma cholesterol metabolism.
        J Clin Invest. 1985; 75: 874-882
        • van Tol A
        • Scheek LM
        • Groener JEM
        Net mass transfer of cholesteryl esters from low density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins in plasma from normolipidemic subjects.
        Arterioscler Thromb. 1991; 11: 55-63
        • Dobiasova M
        Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and regulation of endogenous cholesterol transport.
        Adv Lipid Res. 1983; 20: 107-194
        • Marcel YL
        • Vezina C
        Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase of human plasma.
        J Biol Chem. 1973; 248: 8254-8259
        • Abbey M
        • Clifton P
        • Kestin M
        • Belling B
        • Nestel P
        Effect of fish oil on lipoproteins, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and lipid transfer protein activity in humans.
        Arteriosclerosis. 1990; 10: 85-94
        • Yao JK
        • Dyk PJ
        In vitro cholesterol esterification in human serum.
        Clin Chem. 1977; 23: 447-453
        • Stokke MKT
        • Norum KR
        Determination of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransfer in human blood plasma.
        Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1971; 27: 21-27
        • Fielding CJ
        Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol transport.
        Methods Enzymol. 1985; 111: 267-275
        • Fielding PE
        • Fielding CJ
        • Havel RJ
        • Kane JP
        • Tun P
        Cholesterol net transport, esterification, and transfer in human hyperlipidemic plasma.
        J Clin Invest. 1983; 71: 449-460
        • Sutherland WH
        • Walkers RJ
        • Lewis-Barned NJ
        • Pratt H
        • Tillman HC
        Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
        Clin Chim Acta. 1994; 231: 29-31
        • Weintraub MS
        • Zechner R
        • Brown A
        • Eisenberg S
        • Breslow JL
        Dietary polyunsaturated fats of the W-6 and W-3 series reduce postprandial lipoprotein levels. Chronic and acute effects of fat saturation on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism.
        J Clin Invest. 1988; 82: 1884-1893
        • Miller JP
        • Cjait A
        • Lewis B
        The relationship between dietary fat composition and plasma cholesterol esterification in man.
        Clin Sci Mol Med. 1975; 49: 617-620
        • Singer P
        • Wirth M
        • Voigt S
        • et al.
        Blood pressure- and lipid-lowering effect of mackerel and herring diet in patients with mild essential hypertension.
        Atherosclerosis. 1985; 56: 223-235
        • van Tol A
        • Zock PL
        • van Gent T
        • Scheek LM
        • Katan MB
        Dietary trans fatty acids increase serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in man.
        Atherosclerosis. 1995; 115: 129-134
        • Channon KM
        • Clegg RJ
        • Bhatnagar D
        • Ishola M
        • Arrol M
        • Durrington PN
        Investigation of lipid transfer in human serum leading to the development of an isotopic method for the determination of endogenous cholesterol esterification and transfer.
        Atherosclerosis. 1990; 80: 217-226
        • Rose HG
        • Juliano J
        Regulation of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in man.
        J Lipid Res. 1979; 20: 399-407
        • Groener JEM
        • Ramshorst EM
        • Katan MB
        • Mensink RP
        • Tol A
        Diet-induced alteration in the activity of plasma lipid transfer protein in normolipidemic human subjects.
        Atherosclerosis. 1991; 87: 221-226
        • McPherson R
        • Mann CJ
        • Tall AR
        • et al.
        Plasma concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in hyperlipo-proteinemia. Relationship to cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and other lipoprotein variables.
        Arteriosclerosis. 1991; 11: 797-804
        • Tató F
        • Vega GL
        • Tall AR
        • Grundy SM
        Relation between cholesterol ester transfer protein activities and lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995; 15: 112-120
        • Spritz N
        • Mishkel MA
        Effects of dietary fats on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: and hyphotesis for the lipid-lowering effect of unsaturated fatty acids.
        J Clin Invest. 1969; 48: 78-86
        • Baudet MF
        • Lasserre DM
        • Esteva O
        • Jacotot B
        Modification in the composition and metabolic properties of human low density and high density lipoproteins by different dietary fats.
        J Lipid Res. 1984; 25: 456-468