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Periodontal bacteria in human carotid atherothrombosis as a potential trigger for neutrophil activation

      Highlights

      • Periodontal bacterial DNA has been detected in cardiovascular samples.
      • Intraplaque hemorrhage has been associated with plaque rupture.
      • Intraplaque hemorrhage was associated with neutrophil activation markers.
      • Hemoglobin levels were associated with the detection of Tannerella forsythia DNA.
      • T. forsythia may induced neutrophil activation within hemorrhagic atherosclerotic plaques.

      Abstract

      Objective

      Epidemiological, biological and clinical links between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases are now well established. Several human studies have detected bacterial DNA corresponding to periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular samples. Intraplaque hemorrhage has been associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic plaque rupture, potentially mediated by neutrophil activation. In this study, we hypothesized that plaque composition may be related to periodontal pathogens.

      Methods

      Carotid culprit plaque samples were collected from 157 patients. Macroscopic characterization was performed at the time of collection: presence of blood, lipid core, calcification and fibrosis. Markers of neutrophil activation released by carotid samples were quantified (myeloperoxidase or MPO, cell-free DNA and DNA-MPO complexes). PCR analysis using specific primers for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcommitans, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia was used to detect DNA from periodontal pathogens in carotid tissues. In addition, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Immunoglobulins G against T. forsythia were quantified in atherosclerotic carotid conditioned medium.

      Results

      Intraplaque hemorrhage was present in 73/157 carotid samples and was associated with neutrophil activation, reflected by the release of MPO, cell-free DNA and MPO-DNA complexes. LPS levels were also linked to intraplaque hemorrhage but not with the neutrophil activation markers. Seventy-three percent of the carotid samples were positive for periodontal bacterial DNA. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were associated with the detection of T. forsythia and neutrophil activation/inflammation markers.

      Conclusion

      This study suggests a potential role of periodontal microorganisms, especially T. forsythia, in neutrophil activation within hemorrhagic atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

      Keywords

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