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High plasma levels of α- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis

Results from the Bruneck study

      Abstract

      Background and purpose: A large number of studies have contributed to the hypothesis that carotenoids, vitamins A and E are protective against atherosclerosis by acting as antioxidants. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between plasma levels of carotenoids (α- and β- carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin), vitamins A and E, and atherosclerosis in the carotid and femoral arteries. Methods: This prospective and cross sectional study involved a randomly selected population sample of 392 men and women aged 45–65 years. Carotid and femoral artery atherosclerosis was assessed by high-resolution duplex ultrasound. Results: α- and β- carotene plasma levels were inversely associated with the prevalence of atherosclerosis in the carotid and femoral arteries (P=0.004) and with the 5-year incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries (P=0.04). These findings were obtained after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors (sex, age, LDL (low density lipoproteins), ferritin, systolic blood pressure, smoking, categories of alcohol consumption, social status, C-reactive protein). Atherosclerosis risk gradually decreased with increasing plasma α- and β-carotene concentrations (P=0.004). No associations were found between vitamin A and E plasma levels and atherosclerosis. Conclusions: This study provides further epidemiological evidence of a protective role of high α- and β- carotene in early atherogenesis.

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