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The role of chemokines in human cardiovascular pathology: enhanced biological insights

  • William S Shin
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94306, USA
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  • Andrzej Szuba
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94306, USA
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  • Stanley G Rockson
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Present address: Stanford Program for Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Therapies, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Tel.: +1-650-725-7571; fax: +1-650-725-1599
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94306, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      A growing body of experimental evidence supports the pivotal role of chemokines in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. The endothelial expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is apparently essential for the earliest cellular responses of atherogenesis. Many atherogenic and anti-atherogenic stimuli can be construed to exert their effects predominantly upon MCP-1 expression within the vascular wall. The atherogenic effects of interleukin-8 (IL-8) seem to be mediated through the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Biological expression of these two important vascular chemokines is further modulated by NF-κB. The delineation of these molecular forces that drive atherogenesis increasingly underscores the pivotal role of various chemokines. It is anticipated that more precise delineation of these patterns of gene expression will help to identify molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

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