Dietary determinants of serum paraoxonase activity in healthy humans


      The associations between habitual diet and a variety of markers of lipid peroxidation or oxidative stress in a group of 95 healthy comparatively young Finnish volunteers (24 male and 71 females) were investigated. The habitual diet of the subjects was evaluated with a 3-day food record. The following biochemical parameters related to lipid peroxidation or oxidative stress were measured: lagtime of Cu2+ induced LDL oxidation in vitro, lipid hydroperoxides and Schiff bases produced during the LDL oxidation test, malondialdehyde measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances from native LDL and Cu2+ oxidized LDL, serum paraoxonase (PON) activity. Serum PON activity showed most constantly associations with habitual diet. PON activity correlated negatively (r=−0.31 to −0.37) with intake of vegetables, total and water-soluble fiber, as well as intake of β-carotene. Highly significant difference (P=0.005) in PON activity between lowest (<135 g/day) and highest (>256 g/day) vegetable intake quartiles was found. Malondialdehyde levels showed conflicting associations with diet. The results suggest that the significantly lower PON activity associated with high vegetable intake needs to be studied further.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Mackness M.I.
        • Arrol S.
        • Abbott C.
        • Durrington P.N.
        Protection of low density lipoprotein against oxidative modification by high-density lipoprotein associated paraoxonase.
        Atherosclerosis. 1993; 104: 129-135
        • Klimov A.N.
        • Gurevich V.S.
        • Nikiforova A.A.
        • Shatilina L.V.
        • Kuzmin A.A.
        • Plavinsky S.L.
        • Teryukova N.P.
        Antioxidative activity of high-density lipoprotein in vivo.
        Atherosclerosis. 1993; 100: 13-18
        • Watson A.D.
        • Berliner J.A.
        • Hama S.Y.
        • La Du B.N.
        • Faull K.F.
        • Fogelman A.M.
        • Navab M.
        Protective effect of high density lipoprotein associated paraoxonase: inhibition of the biological activity of minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1995; 96: 2882-2891
        • Stafforini D.M.
        • Zimmerman G.A.
        • McIntyre T.M.
        The platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase from human plasma prevents oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein.
        Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys. 1993; 105: 44-63
        • Eritsland J.
        Safety considerations of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Supplement). 2000; 71: 197S-201S
        • Turpeinen A.
        • Basu S.
        • Mutanen M.
        A high linoleic acid diet increases oxidative stress in vivo and affects nitric oxide metabolism in humans.
        Prostag. Leukot. Ess. Fatty Acids. 1998; 59: 229-233
        • Basu S.
        • Smedman A.
        • Vessby B.
        Conjugated linoleic acid induces lipid peroxidation in humans.
        FEBS Lett. 2000; 468: 33-36
        • Nair J.
        • Vaca C.E.
        • Velic I.
        • Mutanen M.
        • Valsta L.M.
        • Bartsch H.
        High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA base adducts in white blood cells of female subjects.
        Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers. 1997; 6: 597-601
        • McCall M.R.
        • Frei B.
        Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans?.
        Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1999; 26: 1034-1053
        • Korpela R.
        • Seppo L.
        • Laakso J.
        • et al.
        Dietary habits affect the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 52: 802-807
        • Louheranta A.M.
        • Porkkala-Sarataho E.K.
        • Nyyssönen M.K.
        • Salonen R.M.
        • Salonen J.T.
        Linoleic acid intake and susceptibility of very-low-density and low-density lipoproteins to oxidation in men.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 63: 698-703
        • Marangon K.
        • Herbeth B.
        • Lecomte E.
        • et al.
        Diet, antioxidant status, and smoking habits in French men.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 67: 231-239
        • Pietinen P.
        • Hartman A.M.
        • Haapa E.
        Reproducibility and validity of dietary assessment instruments, I. A self-administered food use questionnaire with a portion size picture booklet.
        Am. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 128: 655-666
        • Ovaskainen M.-L.
        • Lauronen J.
        • Haapakoski J.
        Epidemiological food and nutrient database at the National Public Health Institute.
        Scand. J. Nutr. (Supplement 29). 1994; 38: 10
        • Esterbauer H.
        • Striegl G.
        • Puhl H.
        • Rotheneder M.
        Continuous monitoring of in vitro oxidation of human low density lipoprotein.
        Free Radic. Res. Commun. 1989; 6: 67-75
        • El-Saadani M.
        • Esterbauer H.
        • El-Sayed M.
        • Goher M.
        • Nassar A.Y.
        • Jurgens G.
        A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent.
        J. Lipid Res. 1989; 30: 627-630
        • Cominacini L.
        • Garbin U.
        • Davoli A.
        • et al.
        A simple test for predisposition to LDL oxidation based on the fluorescence development during copper-catalysed oxidative modification.
        J. Lipid Res. 1991; 32: 349-358
        • Wade C.R.
        • van Rij A.M.
        Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactivity: reaction conditions and the role of iron, antioxidants and lipid peroxy radicals on the quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides.
        Life Sci. 1988; 43: 1085-1093
        • Gan K.N.
        • Smolen A.
        • Eckerson H.W.
        • La Du B.N.
        Purification of human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase. Evidence for one esterase catalyzing both activities.
        Drug Metab. Dispos. 1991; 19: 100-106
        • Brubacher G.
        • Vuilleumier J.P.
        Vitamin C.
        in: Curtius H.C. Roth M. Clinical Biochemistry. Principles and Methods. Second ed. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin1974: 989-997
        • Anttolainen M.
        • Valsta L.M.
        • Alfthan G.
        • Kleemola P.
        • Salminen I.
        • Tamminen M.
        Effect of extreme fish consumption on dietary and plasma antioxidant levels and fatty acid composition.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 50: 741-746
        • Bieri J.G.
        • Brown E.D.
        • Smith J.C.
        Determination of individual carotenoids in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography.
        J. Liquid Chromatogr. 1985; 8: 473-484
        • Salminen I.
        • Mutanen M.
        • Jauhiainen M.
        • Aro A.
        Dietary trans fatty acids increase conjugated linoleic acid levels in human serum.
        J. Nutr. Biochem. 1998; 9: 93-98
        • Jenkinson A.
        • Franklin M.F.
        • Wahle K.
        • Duthie G.G.
        Dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids and indices of oxidative stress in human volunteers.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 53: 523-528
        • Thompson F.E.
        • Byers T.
        Dietary assessment resource manual.
        J. Nutr. 1994; 124: 2245S-2317S
        • Barrett-Connor E.
        Nutrition epidemiology: how do we know what they ate?.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991; 54: 182S-187S
        • Mackness M.I.
        • Harty D.
        • Bhatnagar D.
        • Winocour P.H.
        • Arrol S.
        • Ishola M.
        • Durrington P.N.
        Serum paraoxonase activity in familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
        Atherosclerosis. 1991; 86: 193-199
        • Blatter M.-C.
        • James R.W.
        • Messmer S.
        • Barja F.
        • Pometta D.
        Identification of high density lipoprotein subspecies defined by a lipoprotein-associated protein, K-45.
        Eur. J. Biochem. 1993; 211: 871-879
        • Kelso G.J.
        • Stuart W.D.
        • Richter R.J.
        • Furlong C.E.
        • Jordan-Starck T.C.
        • Harmony J.A.K.
        Apolipoprotein J is associated with paraoxonase in human plasma.
        Biochemistry. 1994; 33: 832-839
        • Mackness M.I.
        • Mackness B.
        • Durrington P.N.
        • Connelly P.W.
        • Hegele R.A.
        Paraoxonase: biochemistry, genetics and relationship to plasma lipoproteins.
        Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 1996; 7: 69-76
        • Aviram M.
        • Rosenblat M.
        • Billecke S.
        • Erogul J.
        • Sorenson R.
        • Bisgaier C.L.
        • Newton R.S.
        • La Du B.
        Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) is inactivated by oxidized low density lipoprotein preserved by antioxidants.
        Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1999; 26: 892-904
        • Pfohl M.
        • Koch M.
        • Enderle M.D.
        • Kuhn R.
        • Fullhase J.
        • Karsch K.R.
        • Haring H.U.
        Paraoxonase 192 Gln/Arg gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes.
        Diabetes. 1999; 48: 623-627
        • Schiavon R.
        • DeFanti E.
        • Giavarina D.
        • Biasioli S.
        • Cavalcanti G.
        • Guidi G.
        Serum paraoxonase activity is decreased in uremic patients.
        Clin. Chim. Acta. 1996; 247: 71-80
        • Mackness M.I.
        • Durrington P.N.
        • Ayub A.
        • Mackness B.
        Low serum paraoxonase: a risk factor for atherosclerosis.
        Chem.-Biol. Interact. 1999; 119-120: 389-397
        • Nishio E.
        • Watanabe Y.
        Cigarette smoke extract inhibits plasma paraoxonase activity by modification of the enzyme's free thiols.
        Biochem. Phys. Res. Commun. 1997; 236: 289-293
        • Ness A.R.
        • Powles J.W.
        Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review.
        Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 26: 1-13
        • Duverger N.
        • Rader D.
        • Brewer H.B.
        Distribution of subclasses of HDL containing apoA-I without apoA-II (LpA-I) in normolipidemic men and women.
        Arterioscler. Thromb. 1994; 14: 1594-1599
        • Humbert R.
        • Adler D.A.
        • Distecke C.M.
        • Hassett C.
        • Omiecinski C.J.
        • Furlong C.E.
        The molecular basis of the human serum paraoxonase activity polymorphism.
        Nat. Genet. 1993; 3: 73-76
        • La Du B.N.
        Structural and functional diversity of paraoxonases.
        Nat. Med. 1996; 2: 1186-1187
        • Ayub A.
        • Mackness M.I.
        • Arrol S.
        • Mackness B.
        • Patel J.
        • Durrington P.N.
        Serum paraoxonase after myocardial infarction.
        Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 1999; 19: 330-333
        • Laplaud P.M.
        • Dantoine T.
        • Chapman M.J.
        Paraoxonase as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease: facts and hypotheses.
        Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 1998; 36: 431-441
        • Sutherland W.H.F.
        • Walker R.J.
        • de Jong S.A.
        • van Rij A.M.
        • Phillips V.
        • Walker H.L.
        Reduced postprandial serum paraoxonase activity after a meal rich in used cooking fat.
        Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 1999; 19: 1340-1347
        • Combs Jr., G.F.
        The Vitamins.
        Fundamental Aspects In Nutrition And Health. Second ed. Academic Press, San Diego1998