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Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein: does insulin resistance play a role in the regulation of chylomicron assembly?

      Abstract

      We have previously demonstrated that diabetes is associated with an increase in intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA in both the rat and rabbit models. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between MTP expression and chylomicron assembly in an insulin resistant non-diabetic animal model. Ten insulin resistant Zucker obese fa/fa rats and ten lean fa/− rats were examined at 8–10 weeks of age. The lymph duct was cannulated and lymph collected for 4 h. Lymph chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation and their composition determined. RNA was extracted from intestinal mucosa and from the liver. MTP mRNA was measured using the RNase protection assay. Blood sugar in the fatty rats was significantly higher (6.3±1.2 vs. 5.4±0.4 P<0.05) and plasma insulin was almost six times that of the lean rats (P<0.001). Plasma cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride were significantly increased in the obese animals (P<0.01). Obese animals secreted significantly more lymph chylomicron apo B48 (0.05±0.02 vs. 0.02±0.01mg/h P<0.005), triglyceride (9.7±5.3 vs. 3.8±1.9 mg/h P<0.005) and phospholipid (1.5±0.7 vs. 0.4±0.3 mg/h P<0.001). The only difference in the chylomicron particle composition between the two groups was a significant increase in phospholipid (P<0.01). Intestinal MTP mRNA expression was significantly higher in the fatty compared to the lean rats (22.1±9.5 vs. 7.8±5.6 amol MTP mRNA/μg total RNA P<0.001) as was hepatic MTP mRNA expression (6.9±3.5 vs. 3.4±1.5 amol MTP mRNA/μg total RNA, P<0.01). Thus in this animal model of insulin resistance, increased MTP, which was associated with increased chylomicron particle number, may play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis.

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