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Effects of long-term negative energy balance with exercise on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in identical twins

      Abstract

      Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were measured before and after a 58,000 kcal (244 MJ) negative energy balance protocol induced entirely by supervised endurance exercise over a 93-day period in seven pairs of young sedentary and healthy male monozygotic twins. The negative energy balance induced significant changes in all measures of body weight and composition except fat free mass. The mean weight loss was 5.0±0.6 kg, and it was entirely accounted for by the loss of body fat. In response to the program, improvement in the plasma lipid profile was seen including decreases in plasma total (P=0.028) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P=0.004) cholesterol; total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (P=0.002); and HDL apolipoprotein A–I concentration (P=0.062). Statistically significant within-pair resemblance was found for the changes in total and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol; total, VLDL and LDL triglycerides, and total, VLDL and LDL apolipoprotein B. The findings suggest that favorable changes in the lipid profile can be obtained through chronic negative energy balance achieved by clamping daily energy intake and adding daily moderate intensity exercise even in persons with relatively normal lipid levels at baseline. Furthermore, within-pair resemblance among twin brothers strongly suggests that genetic differences partially account for the variation in the response of lipids and lipoproteins to the negative energy balance protocol.

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