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Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein by aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke and the preventive effect of fluvastatin

      Abstract

      Cigarette smoking is known to promote atherosclerosis, possibly through enhanced oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the possible involvement of peroxynitrite in oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (CSE) and the preventive effect of fluvastain, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor with antioxidative activity, in vitro and in vivo. Modification of LDL was monitored by LDL subfraction analysis using anion-exchange HPLC, TBARS formation and 3-nitrotyrosine production. Incubation of LDL with CSE caused a marked increase in oxidative modification of LDL and nitration of tyrosine residues in the apolipoprotein B. These modifications were prevented by treatment with fluvastatin as well as Vitamin E in a concentration-related manner. Fluvastatin was equal to or more effective than Vitamin E for preventing protein nitration, but weaker for preventing oxidative modification. When CSE was injected daily into the ear vein of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits for 5 months, both oxidative modification and nitration of the plasma LDL noticeably occurred. These changes induced by CSE could be effectively prevented by the simultaneous oral administration of fluvastatin (10 and 30 mg/kg) or Vitamin E (150 mg/kg). Fluvastatin prevented the LDL nitration more effectively than Vitamin E. These results suggest that peroxynitrite in CSE is involved in oxidative modification of LDL and that fluvastatin can efficiently prevent LDL modification by scavenging peroxynitrite. Fluvastatin may be potentially beneficial to hypercholesterolemic patients with oxidative stress such as smoking.

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