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Letter to the Editor

      Since 1999 we have been finding a significant increase in antibodies against oxidized LDL particles (IgoxLDL) in three-month old infants who received milk formula. For the first time we published these findings of high IgoxLDL levels in sera of infants in 1999 [
      • Steinerová A.
      • Racek J.
      • Stožický F.
      • Tatzber F.
      • Lapin A.
      Autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in the first phase of life.
      ]. However, the big standard deviation led us to carry out a more detailed analysis and we found that the levels of IgoxLDL in formula-fed infants differed significantly from those in breastfed infants being as much as one order higher in formula-fed infants [
      • Steinerová A.
      • Stožický F.
      • Racek J.
      • Tatzber F.
      Antibodies against oxidized LDL in infants.
      ]. We confirmed this observation in a new group of neonates and three-month old infants as documented in Fig. 1. Furthermore, we have shown that only formula-fed male and not female infants are susceptible to increased IgoxLDL titres [Fig. 1, Table 1]. However, the increase of oxidatively modified LDL particles (oxLDL) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in the 1st three postnatal months was statistically significantly higher in breastfed infants in comparison with their bottle-fed counterparts, without regard to gender of infants (Table 1). IgoxLDL are supposed to be produced as a reaction on oxidative modification of LDL and we chose this parameter as a marker of a long-term oxidative stress.
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Fig. 1Changes in IgoxLDL titres in male/female, breastfed/formula-fed infants. Change was computed: value at 3 months—value immediately after the birth (from umbilical cord). Data are represented as mean + or − standard deviation, NS=non significant.
      Table 1Changes of IgoxLDL, oxLDL and apoB levels
      Breastfed Formula-fed
      IgoxLDL-male −626.62 ± 433.84 ([−1310]–[−173])/5 3632.77 ± 4243.04 ([−126]–[9974])/7
      IgoxLDL-female −804.15 ± 1319.1 ([−4221]–[−66]/11 −621.25 ± 1516.93 ([−2869]–[308])/4
      IgoxLDL-total −748.67 ± 1103.37 ([−4221]–[−66]/16 2085.86 ± 4012.33 ([−2869]–[9974])/11
      oxLDL-total 29.1 ± 12.8 (7.0–47.7)/16 5.7 ± 29.8 ([−59.8]–[50.0]/11
      apoB-total 0.59 ± 0.21 (0.32–0.98)/15 0.10 ± 0.54 ([−0.88]–[0.46]/9
      Effect of gender and the way of feeding. Change was computed as: value at 3 months—value immediately after the birth (from umbilical cord). Data are expressed as mean±S.D. (range) per count.
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