Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm


      Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in various asymptomatic populations has been well documented, however, limited information is available about the prevalence in manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease patients. The aim of this study is to determine the overall and gender-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in these patients. This cross-sectional survey of 1117 patients, aged 18–80 years, mean age 60±10 years, comprised patients with coronary heart disease (n=527), cerebrovascular disease (n=258), peripheral arterial disease (n=232) or abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=100). Metabolic syndrome was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46%: 58% in PAD patients, 41% in CHD patients, 43% in CVD patients and 47% in AAA patients. Overall, women had a higher prevalence than men (56% versus 43%). Age did not influence the metabolic syndrome prevalence; crude odds ratios (crude OR) 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99–1.02). Our results demonstrate a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease. Screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with high risk for new vascular incidents may identify patients with even higher vascular risk and may direct anti-atherosclerotic treatment in order to prevent new vascular incidents in the same or another vascular bed.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Isomaa B
        • Almgren P
        • Tuomi T
        • et al.
        Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome.
        Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: 683-689
        • Lakka H.M
        • Laaksonen D.E
        • Lakka T.A
        • et al.
        The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men.
        J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2002; 288: 2709-2716
        • Trevisan M
        • Liu J
        • Bahsas F.B
        • Menotti A
        Syndrome X and mortality: a population-based study. Risk Factor and Life Expectancy Research Group.
        Am. J. Epidemiol. 1998; 148: 958-966
        • Isomaa B
        • Henricsson M
        • Almgren P
        • et al.
        The metabolic syndrome influences the risk of chronic complications in patients with type II diabetes.
        Diabetologia. 2001; 44: 1148-1154
        • Alexander C.M
        • Landsman P.B
        • Teutsch S.M
        • Haffner S.M
        NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older.
        Diabetes. 2003; 52: 1210-1214
        • Ridker P.M
        • Buring J.E
        • Cook N.R
        • Rifai N
        C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women.
        Circulation. 2003; 107: 391-397
        • Ford E.S
        • Giles W.H
        • Dietz W.H
        Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
        J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2002; 287: 356-359
        • Rantala A.O
        • Kauma H
        • Lilja M
        • et al.
        Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in drug-treated hypertensive patients and control subjects.
        J. Intern. Med. 1999; 245: 163-174
        • Liese A.D
        • Mayer-Davis E.J
        • Haffner S.M
        Development of the multiple metabolic syndrome: an epidemiologic perspective.
        Epidemiol. Rev. 1998; 20: 157-172
        • Simons P.C
        • Algra A
        • van de Laak M.F
        • Grobbee D.E
        • Van der Graaf Y
        Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease (SMART) study: rationale and design.
        Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1999; 15: 773-781
      1. Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). J Am Med Assoc 2001;285:2486–97.

        • Alberti K.G
        • Zimmet P.Z
        Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. 1. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation.
        Diabet. Med. 1998; 15: 539-553
        • Sakkinen P.A
        • Wahl P
        • Cushman M
        • Lewis M.R
        • Tracy R.P
        Clustering of procoagulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis variables with metabolic factors in insulin resistance syndrome.
        Am. J. Epidemiol. 2000; 152: 897-907
        • Ford E.S
        • Giles W.H
        A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions.
        Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 575-581
        • Garg J.P
        • Bakris G.L
        Microalbuminuria: marker of vascular dysfunction, risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
        Vasc. Med. 2002; 7: 35-43
        • Clausen P
        • Jensen J.S
        • Jensen G
        • Borch-Johnsen K
        • Feldt-Rasmussen B
        Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects.
        Circulation. 2001; 103: 1869-1874
        • Liese A.D
        • Mayer-Davis E.J
        • Tyroler H.A
        • et al.
        Development of the multiple metabolic syndrome in the ARIC cohort: joint contribution of insulin, BMI, and WHR. Atherosclerosis in communities.
        Ann. Epidemiol. 1997; 7: 407-416