The effect of chronic consumption of red wine on cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women

  • Mary Naissides
    Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • John C.L. Mamo
    Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Anthony P. James
    Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Sebely Pal
    Corresponding author at: Curtin University, School of Public Health, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia. Tel.: +61 8 92664755; fax: +61 8 92662958.
    Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
    Search for articles by this author



      Moderate red wine has been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however the effects on certain CVD risk factors are unclear. In this study we have investigated the effects of dealcoholised red wine (DRW) and full-complement red wine (RW) on several cardiovascular risk factors in mildly hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women.


      To elucidate whether the chronic consumption of red wine polyphenols improves risk factors associated with CVD in hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women.


      Forty-five hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to consume 400 mL/day of either water, DRW or RW for 6 weeks following a 4-week washout. Fasting measures of lipids, lipoproteins, insulin and glucose were taken at 0 and 6 weeks.


      DRW consumption had no effect of fasting concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, insulin and glucose. However, chronic consumption of RW significantly reduced fasting LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8% and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations by 17% in hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women.


      Collectively, regular consumption of full-complement red wine reduces CVD risk by improving fasting lipid levels in hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women. This study uniquely demonstrated the LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of red wine in individuals at high CVD risk, which has not previously been shown.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Renaud S.
        • De Lorgeril M.
        • Salen M.D.
        • et al.
        Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease.
        Lancet. 1992; 339: 1523-1526
        • St Leger A.S.
        • Cochrane A.L.
        • Moore F.
        Factors associated with cardiac mortality in developed countries with particular reference to the consumption of wine.
        Lancet. 1979; 1: 1017-1020
        • Hertog M.G.
        • Feskens E.J.
        • Hollman P.C.
        • Katan M.B.
        • Kromhout D.
        Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study.
        Lancet. 1993; 342: 1007-1011
        • Pal S.
        • Ho N.
        • Santos C.
        • et al.
        Red wine polyphenolics increase LDL receptor expression and activity and suppress the secretion of ApoB100 from human HepG2 cells.
        J Nutr. 2003; 133: 700-706
        • Vinson J.A.
        • Teufel K.
        • Wu N.
        Red wine, dealcoholised red wine, and especially grape juice, inhibit atherosclerosis in a hamster model.
        Atherosclerosis. 2001; 156: 67-72
        • Pal S.
        • Ho S.S.
        • Takechi R.
        Red wine polyphenolics suppress the secretion of ApoB48 from human intestinal CaCo-2 Cells.
        J Agric Food Chem. 2005; 53: 2767-2772
        • Goldberg DM.
        • Garovic-Kocic V.
        • Diamandis E.P.
        • Pace-Asciak C.R.
        Wine: does the colour count?.
        Clin Chim Acta. 1996; 246: 183-193
        • Lavy A.F.B.
        • Markel A.
        • Danker G.
        • et al.
        Effect of dietary supplementation of red or white wine on human blood chemistry, hematology and coagulation: favourable effect of red wine on plasma high-density lipoproteins.
        Ann Nutr Metabol. 1994; 38: 287-294
        • Naissides M.
        • Mamo J.C.
        • James A.P.
        • Pal S.
        The effect of acute red wine polyphenol consumption on postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women.
        Atherosclerosis. 2004; 177: 401-408
        • Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit
        Comparable data on food and nutrient intake and physical measurements from the 1983, 1985 and 1995 national nutrition surveys.
        Commonwealth of Australia, 2001
        • Nutbeam D.
        • Wise M.
        • Bauman A.
        • Harris E.
        • Leeder S.
        Goals and targets for Australia's health in the year 2000 and beyond.
        Department of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia1993
        • Helrick K.
        Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
        15th ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA1990
        • Smith D.
        • Proctor S.D.
        • Mamo J.C.
        A highly sensitive assay for quantitation of apolipoprotein B48 using an antibody to human apolipoprotein B and enhanced chemiluminescence.
        Ann Clin Biochem. 1997; 34: 185-189
        • Bairaktari E.
        • Hatzidimou K.
        • Tzallas C.
        • et al.
        Estimation of LDL cholesterol based on the Friedewald formula and on apo B levels.
        Clin Biochem. 2000; 33: 549-555
        • Matthews D.R.
        • Hosker J.P.
        • Rudenski A.S.
        • et al.
        Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.
        Diabetologia. 1985; 28: 412-419
        • Miyagi Y.
        • Miwa K.
        • Inoue H.
        Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice.
        Am J Cardiol. 1997; 80: 1627-1631
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Klatsky A.
        • Grobbee D.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits.
        Br Med J. 1996; 312: 731-736
        • Senault C.
        • Betoulle D.
        • Luc G.
        • et al.
        Beneficial effects of a moderate consumption of red wine on cellular cholesterol efflux in young men.
        Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000; 10: 63-69
        • Kroon P.A.
        • Clifford M.N.
        • Crozier A.
        • et al.
        How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 15-21
        • Gebhardt R.
        Variable influence of kaempferol and myricetin on in vitro hepatocellular cholesterol biosynthesis.
        Planta Med. 2003; 69: 1071-1074
        • Donovan J.L.
        • Bell J.R.
        • Kasim-Karakas S.
        • et al.
        Catechin is present as metabolites in human plasma after consumption of red wine.
        J Nutr. 1999; 129: 1662-1668
        • Goldberg D.M.
        • Hahn S.E.
        • Parkes J.G.
        Beyond alcohol: beverage consumption and cardiovascular mortality.
        Clin Chim Acta. 1995; 237: 155-187
        • Linn S.
        • Carroll M.
        • Johnson C.
        • et al.
        High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alcohol consumption in US white and black adults: data from NHANES II.
        Am J Public Health. 1993; 83: 811-816
        • Baer D.J.
        • Judd J.T.
        • Clevidence B.A.
        • et al.
        Moderate alcohol consumption lowers risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women fed a controlled diet.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 593-599
        • Castelli W.P.
        Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coronary artery disease—the Framingham Heart Study.
        Can J Cardiol. 1988; 4: 5A-10A
        • Rader D.J.
        • Davidson M.H.
        • Caplan R.J.
        • Pears J.S.
        Lipid and apolipoprotein ratios: association with coronary artery disease and effects of rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin.
        Am J Cardiol. 2003; 91 ([discussion 23C–4C]): 20C-23C
        • Mamo J.
        • Yu K.
        • Elsgood C.
        • et al.
        Is atherosclerosis exclusively a postprandial phenomenon?.
        Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1997; 24: 288-293
        • Daher C.F.
        • Berberi R.N.
        • Baroody G.M.
        Effect of acute and chronic moderate alcohol consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat.
        Food Chem Toxicol. 2003; 41: 1551-1559
        • Cordain L.
        • Melby C.L.
        • Hamamoto A.E.
        • et al.
        Influence of moderate chronic wine consumption on insulin sensitivity and other correlates of syndrome X in moderately obese women.
        Metabolism. 2000; 49: 1473-1478
        • Facchini F.
        • Chen Y.D.
        • Reaven G.M.
        Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity.
        Diab Care. 1994; 17: 115-119
        • Meyer K.A.
        • Conigrave K.M.
        • Chu N.F.
        • et al.
        Alcohol consumption patterns and HbA1c C-peptide and insulin concentrations in men.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2003; 22: 185-194
        • Davies M.J.
        • Baer D.J.
        • Judd J.T.
        • et al.
        Effects of moderate alcohol intake on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2002; 287: 2559-2562