Age and sex modulate metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers of patients after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)



      Primary aim: To evaluate the modulating effects of age and sex on changes in plasma lipid levels in the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Secondary aim: To study insulin, leptin, adiponectin, E-selectin and P-selectin levels and their relation to demographics.


      Comparative, longitudinal, open cohort-study.


      Tertiary care center at a University Hospital.


      Eighty-two consecutive HIV-seropositive patients of either sex were enrolled in the study. Subjects were between 19 and 60 years of age and naive to HAART. Patients were treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitor(s) (PIs) or reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) only. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months.


      Total cholesterol levels increased in all patients. The greatest increase was seen in patients of older age treated with PI. Male gender was another risk factor for higher cholesterol but also for higher triglyceride levels. Therapy with protease inhibitors and/or stavudine had a negative influence on plasma triglyceride levels. Selectins, adipokines and insulin were less influenced by HAART.


      Based on the results of this study selection of therapy regimen according to the demographic risk factors sex and age can offer an easy strategy to help to minimize lipid elevations.


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