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Promoter haplotype of a new ABCA1 mutant influences expression of familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia

      Abstract

      Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter cause the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency syndromes of Tangier disease and familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA). Between individuals carrying ABCA1 mutations, the expression of FHA can be highly variable. Using denaturing HPLC (dHPLC) and direct promoter sequencing we screened the ABCA1 gene of a family with Tangier disease and variable expression of FHA. A new mutation (R1068H) within the first ATP-binding domain was identified in homozygous form in the Tangier disease individual and was present in several family members. Haplotyping of both 1068H alleles in the proband showed homozygosity in the coding region, however, the maternal 1068H allele had three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter previously reported to be associated with reduced ABCA1 expression and HDL levels. An analysis of HDL levels based on 1068H allele haplotype showed the paternal 1068H heterozygotes to have the expected low HDL levels (0.67 ± 0.16 mmol/L), while maternal 1068H heterozygotes showed normal HDL levels (1.18 ± 0.14 mmol/L). Haplotype analysis of the wildtype allele amongst heterozygotes showed no haplotype that was common to the paternal or maternal side. We propose that the paternal 1068H ABCA1 allele causes a negative effect on the function of the wildtype allele and is associated with low HDL levels. In contrast, the maternal 1068H allele has less effect and is associated with a relatively normal HDL level. We conclude that haplotypes of mutant ABCA1 alleles may contribute to the phenotypic variance shown between FHA individuals.

      Abbreviations:

      ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1), apoA1 (apolipoprotein A1), CAD (coronary artery disease), dHPLC (denaturing high performance liquid chromatography), FHA (familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia), HDL (high density lipoprotein), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)

      Keywords

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