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Dietary antioxidants in preventing atherogenesis

  • A.C. Kaliora
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Ave., 17671 Athens, Greece. Tel.: +30 210 9549304; fax: +30 210 9577050.
    Affiliations
    Department of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece
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  • G.V.Z. Dedoussis
    Affiliations
    Department of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece
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  • H. Schmidt
    Affiliations
    Medizinische Klinik mit Scherpunki für Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Endokrinologie, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany
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      Abstract

      Several naturally occurring constituents have received considerable attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. Consuming a diet rich in natural antioxidants has been associated with prevention from and/or treatment of atherosclerosis. Bioactive components of food, which are of special interest, include the Vitamins E and C, polyphenols, carotenoids—mainly lycopene and β-carotene, and coenzyme Q10, featured by antioxidant properties. Antioxidant therapy is supposed to be effective in the early stages of atherosclerosis by preventing LDL oxidation and the oxidative lesion of endothelium. This review focuses on the effect of dietary antioxidants pertained to LDL oxidation and to the vascular endothelial dysfunction. Now that the human genome has been completely sequenced, genetic factors involved in oxidation may open new horizons to identify persons at risk for cardiovascular disease, allowing effective dietary intervention strategies to recover normal homeostasis and to prevent diet-related implications. On this basis, current studies on the action of selected antioxidant nutraceuticals on the activity of transcription factors, such as final targets in the signal transduction cascade and gene regulation, may emerge into new treatment concepts.

      Abbreviations:

      AP-1 (activator protein), CoQ10 (coenzyme Q10), COX (cycloxygenase), CVD (cardiovascular disease), CYP1A1 (cytochrome P450 1A1), G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor), GSH (glutathione), ICAM-1 (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1), IFN (interferon), IL- (interleukin), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), LDL (low density lipoprotein), M-CSF (macrophage-colony stimulating factor), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), NO (nitric oxide), NOS (nitric oxide synthetase), oxLDL (oxidized low density lipoprotein), PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), ROS (reactive oxygen species), SOD (superoxide dismutase), TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), tPA (tissue plasminogen activator), TxA2 (B2) (thromboxane B2), VCAM-1 (vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1)

      Keywords

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