Elevated serum neopterin levels and adverse cardiac events at 6 months follow-up in Mediterranean patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome



      Little information exists regarding the prognostic role of biomarkers of inflammation in Mediterranean patients. High C-reactive protein and neopterin levels – a marker of macrophage activation – predict cardiovascular events in stable angina patients and patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We sought to assess whether plasma neopterin levels predict adverse clinical outcomes in Mediterranean patients with non-ST elevation (NSTE) ACS, i.e. unstable angina (UA) and NSTE myocardial infarction (MI).


      We prospectively assessed 397 patients (74% men) admitted with NSTEACS, 147 (37%) had unstable angina and 250 (63%) NSTEMI. Blood samples for neopterin and CRP assessment were obtained at admission. The study endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina at 180 days.


      Baseline neopterin concentrations (nmol/L) were similar in unstable angina and NSTEMI patients (8.3 [6.6–10.7] vs. 7.9 [6.2–10.9]; p = 0.4). Fifty-nine patients (14.9%) had events during follow-up. Twenty-nine (21.5%) patients with neopterin levels in the highest third experienced the combined endpoint, compared to 30 (11.5%) patients with neopterin levels in the second and the lowest thirds (log-rank 7.435, p = 0.024). On multivariable hazard Cox regression, neopterin (highest vs. 1st and 2nd thirds, HR 1.762, 95% CI [1.023–3.036]) was independently associated with the combined endpoint.


      Increased neopterin levels are an independent predictor of 180-day adverse cardiac events in Mediterranean patients with NSTEACS.


      ACS (acute coronary syndrome), AMI (acute myocardial infarction), UA (unstable angina), CD (cardiac death), CAD (coronary artery disease), PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention), CRP (C-reactive protein), TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction), NSTEACS (non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome), NSTEMI (non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction)


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