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Dietary fat differentially influences regulatory endothelial function during the postprandial state in patients with metabolic syndrome: From the LIPGENE study

  • Pablo Perez-Martinez
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Miriam Moreno-Conde
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Cristina Cruz-Teno
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Juan Ruano
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Francisco Fuentes
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Javier Delgado-Lista
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Antonio Garcia-Rios
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Carmen Marin
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Maria J. Gomez-Luna
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Francisco Perez-Jimenez
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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  • Helen M. Roche
    Affiliations
    Nutrigenomics Research Group, UCD Conway Institute, School of Public Health & Population Science, University College Dublin, Befield, Dublin 4, Ireland
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  • Jose Lopez-Miranda
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Avda. Menéndez Pidal, s/n. 14004 Córdoba, Spain. Tel.: +34 957010947; fax: +34 957218250.
    Affiliations
    Reina Sofia University Hospital, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Ciber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03) Instituto Salud Carlos III, Spain
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      Abstract

      Objective

      To investigate whether endothelium-dependent vasomotor function and plasma levels of cellular adhesion molecules are affected by diets with different fat quantity and quality during the postprandial state in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS).

      Methods

      Patients were randomly assigned to one of four isoenergetic diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high-SFA (HSFA); high-MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, supplemented with 1.24 g/day of long chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) or placebo for 12 weeks each. Flow-associated vasodilatation of the brachial artery and postprandial plasma levels of total nitrites, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and P-selectin were assessed post-intervention.

      Results

      Post-intervention postprandial flow-associated vasodilatation was significantly higher after the HMUFA diet (P < 0.05) compared to subjects adhering to the other three diets. Consistently, the postprandial NO synthase response significantly increased during the HMUFA compared with the HSFA and LFHCC (placebo) diets. Postprandial sICAM-1 levels were lower during the HMUFA than during the HSFA and LFHCC n-3 diets.

      Conclusions

      Our data support the notion that the HMUFA diet improves postprandial endothelial cell function and decreases postprandial plasma sICAM-1 concentrations in patients with the MetS. These findings suggest that the postprandial state is important for understanding possible cardio-protective effects associated with the Mediterranean diet particularly in subject with the MetS.

      Keywords

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