Anti-atherogenic effect of BHB-TZD having inhibitory activities on cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase in hyperlipidemic mice


      Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), which play pivotal roles in atherogenesis, have been reported to be involved in plaque stability. Licofelone, a dual COX and 5-LOX inhibitor, has been reported to possess anti-atherogenic effect in rabbit atherosclerosis model. We therefore investigated the anti-atherogenic effect of BHB-TZD [5-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-2,4-dione], a dual COX and 5-LOX inhibitor, in low density lipoprotein receptor null (LDLR−/−) mice. Fifteen LDLR−/− mice were fed a western diet (control group), whereas 15 were fed a western diet plus 0.1% (w/w) BHB-TZD (BHB-TZD group). After 8 weeks, the BHB-TZD group had markedly lower serum levels of leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 than the control group. Interestingly, BHB-TZD treatment also reduced plasma triglyceride level without significant changes in total cholesterol and HDL levels. Compared with control mice, BHB-TZD fed mice had 52% fewer fatty streak lesions in the aortic sinus, as well as fewer initial lesions in the aortic arch. Macrophage infiltration into the lesions was 40% lower, and collagen and smooth muscle cells were increased by 102% and 96%, respectively, in the BHB-TZD group compared with the control group. In addition, aortic expression of proatherogenic molecules including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and VCAM-1, was lower in the BHB-TZD group than the control group. BHB-TZD treatment also reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in aorta. In conclusion, BHB-TZD effectively attenuated atherosclerosis in mouse model, suggesting its therapeutic potential for atherosclerosis.


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