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The Southern European Atlantic Diet is associated with lower concentrations of markers of coronary risk

  • Pilar Guallar-Castillón
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Arzobispo Morcillo, sn, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Tel.: +34 91 3475480; fax: +34 91 3475353.
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain

    CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
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  • Andreia Oliveira
    Affiliations
    Departament of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
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  • Carla Lopes
    Affiliations
    Departament of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
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  • Esther López-García
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain

    CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
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  • Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain

    CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objective

      The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) is the traditional diet of Northern Portugal and Galicia, a region in northwest Spain. The SEAD has been associated with a lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, but the mechanisms of this association have not yet been investigated. Thus, we examined the association between the SEAD and numerous biomarkers of coronary risk, blood pressure and anthropometrics.

      Methods

      Cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 10,231 individuals representative of the population aged 18 years and older in Spain. Diet was assessed with a validated computerized diet history. SEAD adherence was measured with an index including 9 food components (fresh fish, cod, red meat and pork products, dairy products, legumes and vegetables, vegetable soup, potatoes, whole-grain bread, and wine), which ranges from 0 (lowest adherence) to 9 (highest adherence). C-reactive protein, uric acid, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, leptin, fibrinogen, were determined in 12-h fasting blood samples, while creatinine and urine albumin were determined in urine.

      Results

      Mean SEAD score was 2.9 points (inter-quartile range 2–4 points). Higher SEAD adherence was associated with a lower level of plasma C-reactive protein (adjusted difference in geometric means between the highest and lowest SEAD quartiles −0.2 mg/l; p for trend <0.001), plasma triglycerides (−3.4 mg/dl; p for trend 0.012), insulin (−0.5 mU/l; p for trend <0.001), HOMA-IR (−0.12; p for trend <0.001), urine albumin (−0.8 mg/l; p for trend <0.001), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (−0.3 mg/g creatinine; p for trend <0.034), and systolic blood pressure (−1.6 mm Hg; p for trend <0.001).

      Conclusions

      This study identifies possible mediators of the effect of SEAD on myocardial infarction, because SEAD is associated with a lower concentration of markers of inflammation and with reduced triglycerides, insulin, insulin resistance, and systolic blood pressure.

      Highlights

      • The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) decreases myocardial infarction (MI) risk.
      • Cross-sectional study on 10231 individuals representative of the Spanish population.
      • A higher SEAD adherence was associated with a lower level of inflammatory markers.
      • It was too associated with lower level of triglycerides, insulin and blood pressure.
      • This study suggests possible mediators of the association between the SEAD and MI.

      Keywords

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