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Effects of smoking regular or light cigarettes on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation

      Abstract

      Background and purpose

      To compare the effects of regular cigarettes (RCs) and light cigarettes (LCs) on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate-induced dilation (GTN), markers of endothelial dependant and independent function, respectively.

      Methods

      206 subjects (age 51.5 ± 12.8 yr, 122 men) had their smoking habits recorded and FMD and GTN measured by B-mode ultrasound. Cigarettes were categorized as RCs or LCs according to their content of tar, nicotine and CO. The chronic effect was assessed in current smokers of RCs (n = 85) or LCs (n = 53) and in never smokers (NS; n = 68). The acute effect was assessed in current smokers by measuring FMD before and 10-min after smoking a single regular (n = 29) or light (n = 51) cigarette.

      Results

      FMD was significantly lower in consumers of RCs (6.26%, 95% C.I. 5.58, 6.94) or LCs (5.59%, 95% C.I. 4.74, 6.45) compared to NS (8.68%, 95% C.I. 7.92, 9.44) (both P < 0.0001), but did not differ (P > 0.05) when compared to each other. GTN was similar in the three groups. Analyses adjusted for clinical confounders and for markers involved in oxidative stress, arginine/nitric oxide pathway, and inflammation provided identical results. Smoking a single cigarette, either regular or light, reduced FMD (−0.88% and −1.17%, respectively, both P < 0.05), without significant difference between cigarette type. RCs and LCs produced analogous chronic and acute effects when FMD was calculated with respect to the last 60 s of the low-flow phase (FMD60s).

      Conclusions

      LCs impair endothelial-dependant vasodilation as much as RCs. Thus, smoking LCs cannot be considered an alternative to the only safe choice of a complete and permanent smoking cessation.

      Highlights

      • The study compared the effect of light and regular cigarettes on endothelial function.
      • The effect of chronic smoking on endothelial function is independent of the type of cigarette smoked.
      • Even the lowest dose of cigarettes has a maximal detrimental effect on FMD.
      • A single cigarette, both regular or light alike, impairs FMD even in chronic smokers.
      • The so-called “light” cigarettes impair endothelial function as much as regular cigarettes.

      Keywords

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