Heme and metformin coordinate human and murine macrophage heme oxygenase 1 expression with foam cell resistance partly via adenosine monophosphate kinase and activating transcription factor 1 (AMPK-ATF1)

      Rationale: Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is a key driver of the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. We recently characterised Mhem as a novel macrophage phenotype that limits the atherogenicity of IPH. Mhem are directed by activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), which is activated by phosphorylation. A better understanding of the counter-atherogenic ATF1-Mhem pathway may facilitate anti-atherosclerotic therapies.
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