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Age and sex differences in the effect of parental stroke on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness

  • Hsiu-Fen Lin
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Ling-Chun Huang
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Chun-Hung Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiaokang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Chung Y. Hsu
    Affiliations
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

    Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
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  • Ruey-Tay Lin
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Suh-Hang Hank Juo
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 TzYou First Road, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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      Highlights

      • The first study to investigate the impact of parental stroke on IMT progression.
      • Parental stroke is positively related to the progression of carotid IMT.
      • IMT progression facilitated by parental stroke especially among young women.

      Abstract

      Background and purpose

      Parental stroke is a risk factor for stroke among the offspring. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a widely regarded surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and a predictive marker for stroke. This study examines whether parental stroke is associated with IMT progression.

      Methods

      This longitudinal study had two measures of IMT that were taken upon enrollment of the 521 subjects and after an average follow-up of 4.1 years. The rate of IMT progression was tested for associations with parental stroke and cardiovascular risk factors using ANCOVA models. Age and sex were also tested as effect modifiers. The subjects were allocated into the young or old group using the age of 55 years.

      Results

      Parental history of stroke was significantly associated with progression of common carotid artery (CCA) IMT compared with no parental stroke history (13.52 vs. 10.43 μm/year, adjusted p = 0.035). The parental effect on IMT progression of the bifurcation and internal carotid artery was dependent on age group. Young subjects had faster progression, whereas older subjects with parental stroke had slower progression. There was a three-way interaction among sex, age, and parental stroke in CCA IMT progression, such that young women with parental stroke had a 69.7% faster progression than young women without parental stroke (15.58 vs. 9.18 μm/year). However, this difference was not found in young men or old subjects with and without parental stroke.

      Conclusions

      Parental stroke is associated with carotid artery IMT progression and is more obvious in the young, especially among women. The results emphasize the clinical significance of parental stroke risk on atherosclerosis in young women.

      Keywords

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      Linked Article

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        AtherosclerosisVol. 241Issue 1
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          In this special issue of the journal, there are papers on bone health and coronary artery calcification, age and sex differences in the effect of parental stroke on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness, macrophage subsets in the adipose tissue by sex and by reproductive age of women, uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome, sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease prevention, severity of stable coronary artery disease and its biomarkers, cardiovascular disease and autoimmune diseases genetics of cardiovascular disease, outcome after CABG; association of serum phosphorus with subclinical atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease and relationship of uric acid levels to coronary disease.
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