- •Incidence and prevalence of and morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases differ between men and women.
- •Cardiovascular diseases are complex traits.
- •Genetic analysis of cardiovascular disease traits often fail to include the sex chromosomes.
- •Hormonal status and ethnicity are confounding variables in sex-based genetic analyses.
- •Understanding the genetics of cardiovascular diseases requires considering interactions among genetic sex, genetic race and hormonal status.
2. Background: the genetics of sex
3. Genetics of cardiovascular disease
3.1 General considerations
3.2 Cardiovascular risk factors
- Stone N.J.
- Robinson J.G.
- Lichtenstein A.H.
- Goff Jr., D.C.
- Lloyd-Jones D.M.
- Smith Jr., S.C.
- et al.
3.2.4 Metabolic syndrome
- Yano M.
- Matsumura T.
- Senokuchi T.
- Ishii N.
- Murata Y.
- Taketa K.
- et al.
3.3 Cardiovascular anatomical pathologies
3.3.1 Carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT)
3.3.2 Coronary calcification
4. Confounding variables: ethnicity and hormonal status
4.2 Hormonal status
5. Statistical considerations for future studies
Conflicts of interest
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