Associations between serum cholinesterase and incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as well as changes in lipid levels in a health screening population


      • Longitudinal associations between cholinesterase (ChE) and lipid status were studied.
      • ChE predicted hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia adjusted for BMI.
      • ChE predicted only hypertriglyceridemia in women adjusted for baseline lipid levels.
      • ChE was inversely correlated with 5-year change in LDL cholesterol in men and women.
      • ChE was inversely correlated with5-year change in log triglycerides in men.



      To investigate longitudinal associations between serum cholinesterase (ChE) and lipid status.


      Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for baseline ChE and correlation coefficients between baseline ChE and changes in LDL cholesterol, log triglycerides and HDL cholesterol during 5 years were calculated in a health screening population.


      During the 5-year follow-up period, 337 men (22.9%) and 208 women (26.3%), 330 men (24.3%) and 114 women (12.4%) and 137 men (8.3%) and 117 women (12.7%) developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, respectively. The HRs of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in baseline ChE were 1.15 (p = 0.009) in men and 1.17 (p = 0.017) in women, 1.25 (p < 0.001) in men and 1.37 (p < 0.001) in women and 1.15 (p = 0.113) in men and 1.12 (p = 0.248) in women, respectively adjusted for BMI and other confounders, while the HRs were not significant after further adjusted for each baseline lipid level except for the HR of hypertriglyceridemia in women (HR, 1.22 (p = 0.047)). The baseline ChE was inversely correlated with the changes in LDL cholesterol (r = −0.117, p < 0.001) and log triglycerides (r = −0.114, p < 0.001) in men and the change in LDL cholesterol (r = −0.191, p < 0.001) in women.


      ChE was positively associated with incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia adjusted for BMI, while with only incident hypertriglyceridemia in women after further adjusted for the baseline lipid level.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Oda E.
        Metabolic syndrome: its history, mechanisms, and limitations.
        Acta Diabetol. 2012; 49: 89-95
        • Iwasaki T.
        • Yoneda M.
        • Nakajima A.
        • Terauchi Y.
        Serum butyrylcholinesterase is strongly associated with adiposity, the serum lipid profile and insulin resistance.
        Intern Med. 2007; 46: 1633-1639
        • Vallianou N.G.
        • Evangelopoulos A.A.
        • Bountziouka V.
        • et al.
        Association of butyrylcholinesterase with cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy adults.
        J. Cardiovasc Med. (Hagerstown). 2014; 15: 377-383
        • Inácio Lunkes G.
        • Stefanello F.
        • Sausen Lunkes D.
        • Maria Morsch V.
        • Schetinger M.R.
        • Gonçalves J.F.
        Serum cholinesterase activity in diabetes and associated pathologies.
        Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2006; 72: 28-32
        • Way R.C.
        • Hutton C.J.
        • Kutty K.M.
        Relationship between serum cholinesterase and low density lipoproteins in children with nephrotic syndrome.
        Clin. Biochem. 1975; 8: 103-107
        • Thompson J.C.
        • Whittaker M.
        Pseudocholinesterase activity in thyroid disease.
        J. Clin. Pathol. 1965; 18: 811-812
        • Chu M.I.
        • Fontaine P.
        • Kutty K.M.
        • Murphy D.
        • Redheendran R.
        Cholinesterase in serum and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemic patients.
        Clin. Chim. Acta. 1978; 85: 55-59
        • Cucuianu M.
        • Zdrenghea D.
        • Pop M.
        • Opincaru A.
        Increased serum gamma-glutamyltransferase in hypertriglyceridemia: comparison with serum pseudocholinesterase.
        Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976; 71: 419-427
        • Calderon-Margalit R.
        • Adler B.
        • Abramson J.H.
        • Gofin J.
        • Kark J.D.
        Butyrylcholinesterase activity, cardiovascular risk factors, and mortality in middle-aged and elderly men and women in Jerusalem.
        Clin. Chem. 2006; 52: 845-852
        • Popescu T.A.
        • Fekete T.
        • Popescu E.
        • Böjthy I.
        • Laszlo M.
        Serum pseudocholinesterase activity during experimental fattening.
        Med. Interne. 1976; 14: 71-73
        • Kutty K.M.
        • Huang S.N.
        • Kean K.T.
        Pseudocholinesterase in obesity: hypercaloric diet induced changes in experimental obese mice.
        Experientia. 1981; 37: 1141-1142
        • Tvarijonaviciute A.
        • Tecles F.
        • Ceron J.J.
        Relationship between serum butyrylcholinesterase and obesity in dogs: a preliminary report.
        Vet. J. 2010; 186: 197-200
      1. Oda E. Serum cholinesterase is inversely associated with body weight change in men undergoing routine health screening. Intern Med. 2015 (in press).

        • Sato K.K.
        • Hayashi T.
        • Maeda I.
        • et al.
        Serum butyrylcholinesterase and the risk of future type 2 diabetes: the Kansai healthcare Study.
        Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 2014; 80: 362-367
        • Japan Atherosclerosis Society
        Chapter 3 in Japan atherosclerosis society guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases 2012.
        Kyorinsha. 2012; (in Japanese): p33-36
        • Alberti K.G.M.M.
        • Eckel R.H.
        • Grundy S.M.
        • et al.
        Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome. A joint interim statement of the International diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart Association; World heart Federation; International atherosclerosis Society; and International association for the study of obesity.
        Circulation. 2009; 120: 1640-1645
        • Matsuo S.
        • Imai E.
        • Horio M.
        • et al.
        Revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan.
        Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2009; 53: 982-992
        • Chautard-Freire-Maia E.A.
        • Primo-Parmo S.L.
        • Picheth G.
        • Lourenço M.A.
        • Vieira M.M.
        The C5 isozyme of serum cholinesterase and adult weight.
        Hum. Hered. 1991; 41: 330-339
        • Alcântara V.M.
        • Rodrigues L.C.
        • Oliveira L.C.
        • Chautard-Freire-Maia E.A.
        Association of the CHE2 locus with body mass index and butyrylcholinesterase activity.
        Hum. Biol. 2001; 73: 587-595
        • Alcântara V.M.
        • Oliveira L.C.
        • Réa R.R.
        • Suplicy H.L.
        • Chautard-Freire-Maia E.A.
        Butyrylcholinesterase and obesity in individuals with the CHE2 C5+ and CHE2 C5- phenotypes.
        Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 2003; 27: 1557-1564
        • Dantas V.G.
        • Furtado-Alle L.
        • Souza R.L.
        • Chautard-Freire-Maia E.A.
        Obesity and variants of the GHRL (ghrelin) and BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) genes.
        Genet. Mol. Biol. 2011; 34: 205-207
        • Lima J.K.
        • Leite N.
        • Turek L.V.
        • et al.
        1914G variant of BCHE gene associated with enzyme activity, obesity and triglyceride levels.
        Gene. 2013; 532: 24-26
        • Li B.
        • Duysen E.G.
        • Lockridge O.
        The butyrylcholinesterase knockout mouse is obese on a high-fat diet.
        Chem. Biol. Interact. 2008; 175: 88-91
        • Bono G.F.
        • Simão-Silva D.P.
        • Batistela M.S.
        • et al.
        Butyrylcholinesterase: K variant, plasma activity, molecular forms and rivastigmine treatment in Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population.
        Neurochem. Int. 2015; (pii: S0197–0186(14)00256-3 [Epub ahead of print])