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Randomized trial of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention in HIV-infected patients with moderate-high cardiovascular risk

      Highlights

      • Population of study men, 50.5 years old and with a moderate-high cardiovascular risk.
      • Lifestyle intervention improved lipids the first two years and tobacco consumption.
      • Decrease in cardiovascular risk estimation was achieved with lifestyle intervention.
      • Most patients had subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline that worsened over the study.
      • A proinflammatory environment found at baseline did not improve over the study.

      Abstract

      Objective

      To assess the impact of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk and carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in HIV-infected patients with Framingham scores (FS) > 10%.

      Design

      Randomized pilot study; follow-up 36 months.

      Methods

      Virologically suppressed adult HIV-1-infected patients with FS >10% were randomized 1:1 to the intervention group (multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention) or control group (routine care). At baseline and months 12, 24 and 36, lipid parameters were analyzed and carotid ultrasound was performed to determine c-IMT and presence of plaques. Biomarkers were measured at baseline and month 36. The primary endpoints were lipid and FS changes at 36 months.

      Results

      Fifty-four patients were included, 27 in each arm. Median age was 50.5 years, all patients but one were men, and FS was 16.5%. Relative to controls, total and LDL cholesterol had significantly decreased in the intervention group at 24 months (p = 0.039, p = 0.011, respectively). However, no differences between groups were found at month 36 in lipid variables, neither in FS. Tobacco use decreased in the intervention group (p = 0.031). At baseline, 74.5% of patients had subclinical atherosclerosis, and at month 36, we observed a progression in c-IMT that was greater in the intervention group (p = 0.030). D-dimer increased (p = 0.027) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 decreased (p = 0.018) at 36 months.

      Conclusions

      In this cohort of HIV-infected patients with FS>10% and a high percentage of subclinical atherosclerosis, a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention resulted in a slight improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors and the FS during the first 2 years, but did not prevent c-IMT progression.

      Keywords

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