Predictive value of Galectin-3 for the occurrence of coronary artery disease and prognosis after myocardial infarction and its association with carotid IMT values in these patients: A mid-term prospective cohort study


      • The role of Gal-3 in atherosclerosis has not been definitely acknowledged.
      • Concentrations of Gal-3 were higher in the study group vs healthy controls.
      • Patients with 3-vessel disease had higher levels of Gal-3.
      • MI patients who died during the follow-up, had higher values of Gal-3 and cIMT.
      • The variables influencing the mortality were both: Gal-3>8.7 ng/ml and IMT values in carotid bulb.



      The role of Galectin-3(Gal-3) in atherosclerosis progression has not been definitely acknowledged. The aim of the study was to establish the following: whether Gal-3 may act as an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) occurrence and its advancement, if Gal-3 has potential relations with classical and new markers of cardiovascular risk (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and whether Gal-3 may be a marker of mortality in the group of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) during mid-term follow-up.

      Patients and Methods

      The study group was composed of 233 patients with MI and 100 patients with a stable CAD. Selected risk factors were assessed, Gal-3 concentrations and cIMT were measured. The control group was composed of 100 healthy individuals.


      In the study group (MI and CAD patients) Gal-3 concentration was significantly higher than in the controls – median 7.9 ng/ml (p = 0.0001) and 10.7 ng/ml (p = 0.00001) vs. 5.5 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with 3-vessel disease had higher levels of Gal-3 than patients with 1-or 2-vessel disease (9.2 ng/ml vs 7.4 ng/ml, p = 0.003). In the group of MI patients who died during the follow-up (average period – 2.8 years), we found a significantly higher concentration of Gal-3 (20.0 ng/ml vs 8.0 ng/ml, p = 0.0005) and cIMT values (common carotid artery(CCA): 1.4 ± 0.4 mm vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 mm, p = 0.03; carotid bulb(CB): 2.3 ± 0.5 mm vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.009). In the model of multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables influencing the mortality after MI during follow-up were: age>65years, Gal-3 concentration>8.7 ng/ml, IMT values and plaque occurrence in CB, previous MI and EF<40%.


      Gal-3 is an independent risk factor of CAD occurrence, but cIMT values are better markers of CAD advancement. Both Gal-3 concentration>8.7 ng/ml and IMT values in CB were an independent predictive indicators of increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients after MI during mid-term follow up.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • de Boer R.A.
        • Voors A.A.
        • Muntendam P.
        • van Gilst W.H.
        • van Veldhuisen D.J.
        Galectin-3: a novel mediator of heart failure development and progression.
        Eur. J. Heart Fail. 2009; 11: 811-817
        • Weir R.A.
        • Petrie C.J.
        • Murphy C.A.
        • et al.
        Galectin-3 and cardiac function in survivors of acute myocardial infarction.
        Circ. Heart Fail. 2013; 6: 492-498
        • Ho J.E.
        • Liu C.
        • Lyass A.
        • et al.
        Galectin-3, a marker of cardiac fibrosis, predicts incident heart failure in the community.
        J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2012; 60: 1249-1256
        • Felker G.M.
        • Fiuzat M.
        • Shaw L.K.
        • et al.
        Galectin-3 in ambulatory patients with heart failure: results from the HF-ACTION study.
        Circ. Heart Fail. 2012; 5: 72-78
        • de Boer R.A.
        • Lok D.J.
        • Jaarsma T.
        • et al.
        Predictive value of plasma galectin-3 levels in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction.
        Ann. Med. 2011; 43: 60-68
        • Arar C.
        • Gaudin J.C.
        • Capron L.
        • Legrand A.
        Galectin-3 gene (LGALS3) expression in experimental atherosclerosis and cultured smooth muscle cells.
        FEBS Lett. 1998; 3;430: 307-311
        • Iacobini C.
        • Menini S.
        • Ricci C.
        • et al.
        Accelerated lipid-induced atherogenesis in galectin-3-deficient mice: role of lipoxidation via receptor-mediated mechanisms.
        Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2009; 29: 831-836
        • Tsai T.H.
        • Sung P.H.
        • Chang L.T.
        • et al.
        Value and level of galectin-3 in acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
        J. Atheroscler. Thromb. 2012; 19: 1073-1082
        • Gullestad L.
        • Ueland T.
        • Kjekshus J.
        • et al.
        The predictive value of galectin-3 for mortality and cardiovascular events in the controlled rosuvastatin multinational trial in heart failure (CORONA).
        Am. Heart J. 2012; 164: 878-883
        • Falcone C.
        • Lucibello S.
        • Mazzucchelli I.
        • et al.
        Galectin-3 plasma levels and coronary artery disease: a new possible biomarker of acute coronary syndrome.
        Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 2011; 24: 905-913
        • Menini S.
        • Iacobini C.
        • Ricci C.
        • et al.
        The galectin-3/RAGE dyad modulates vascular osteogenesis in atherosclerosis.
        Cardiovasc Res. 2013; 100: 472-480
        • MacKinnon A.C.
        • Liu X.
        • Hadoke P.W.
        • Miller M.R.
        • Newby D.E.
        • Sethi T.
        Inhibition of galectin-3 reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.
        Glycobiology. 2013; 23: 654-663
        • Lisowska A.
        • Musiał W.J.
        • Prokop J.
        Clinical implications of ultrasonographic assessment of intima-media thickness in peripheral arteries.
        Pol. Przegląd Kardiologiczny. 2003; 4: 451-456
        • Touboul P.J.
        • Hennerici M.G.
        • Meairs S.
        • et al.
        Mannheim intima-media thickness consensus.
        Cerebrovasc. Dis. 2004; 18: 346-349
        • Hunt K.J.
        • Sharrett A.R.
        • Chambless L.E.
        • Folsom A.R.
        • Evans G.W.
        • Heiss G.
        Acoustic shadowing on B-mode ultrasound of the carotid artery predicts CHD.
        Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2001; 27: 357-365
        • Gopal D.M.
        • Kommineni M.
        • Ayalon N.
        • et al.
        Relationship of plasma galectin-3 to renal function in patients with heart failure: effects of clinical status, pathophysiology of heart failure, and presence or absence of heart failure.
        J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2012; 1: e000760
        • Jin Q.H.
        • Lou Y.F.
        • Li T.L.
        • Chen H.H.
        • Liu Q.
        • He X.J.
        Serum galectin-3: a risk factor for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        Chin. Med. J. Engl. 2013; 126: 2109-2115
        • Ozturk D.1
        • Celik O.
        • Satilmis S.
        • et al.
        Association between serum galectin-3 levels and coronary atherosclerosis and plaque burden/structure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        Coron. Artery Dis. 2015; 26: 396-401
        • Lee Y.J.
        • Koh Y.S.
        • Park H.E.
        • et al.
        Spatial and temporal expression, and statin responsiveness of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in murine atherosclerosis.
        Korean Circ. J. 2013; 43: 223-230
        • Gopal D.M.
        • Kommineni M.
        • Ayalon N.
        • et al.
        Relationship of plasma galectin-3 to renal function in patients with heart failure: effects of clinical status, pathophysiology of heart failure, and presence or absence of heart failure.
        J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2012; 1: e000760
        • Maiolino G.
        • Rossitto G.
        • Pedon L.
        • et al.
        Galectin-3 predicts long-term cardiovascular death in high-risk patients with coronary artery disease.
        Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2015; 35: 725-732
        • Jagodzinski A.
        • Havulinna A.S.
        • Appelbaum S.
        • et al.
        Predictive value of galectin-3 for incident cardiovascular disease and heart failure in the population-based FINRISK 1997 cohort.
        Int. J. Cardiol. 2015; 192: 33-39
        • George M.
        • Shanmugam E.
        • Srivatsan V.
        • et al.
        Value of pentraxin-3 and galectin-3 in acute coronary syndrome: a short-term prospective cohort study.
        Ther. Adv. Cardiovasc Dis. 2015; 9: 275-284
        • Grandin E.W.
        • Jarolim P.
        • Murphy S.A.
        • et al.
        Galectin-3 and the development of heart failure after acute coronary syndrome: pilot experience from PROVE IT-TIMI 22.
        Clin. Chem. 2012; 58: 267-273
        • Hashmi S.
        • Al-Salam S.
        Galectin-3 is expressed in the myocardium very early post-myocardial infarction.
        Cardiovasc Pathol. 2015; 24: 213-223
        • Kruk M.
        • Menon V.
        • Kądziela J.
        • et al.
        Impact of percutaneous coronary intervention on biomarker levels in patients in the subacute phase following myocardial infarction: the occluded artery trial (OAT) biomarker ancillary study.
        BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013; 13: 91