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Platelet tissue factor activity and membrane cholesterol are increased in hypercholesterolemia and normalized by rosuvastatin, but not by atorvastatin

      Highlights

      • Platelet tissue factor (TF) initiates the clotting process.
      • TF activation is induced by VWF binding to GPIbα.
      • Platelet FXa generation in hypercholesterolemia (HC) is abnormally high.
      • Rosuvastatin decreases platelet cholesterol and TF-induced clotting in HC.
      • HDL and platelet TF activity correlate negatively in non-treated HC-patients.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      High plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and platelet responses have major pathogenic roles in atherothrombosis. Thus, statins and anti-platelet drugs constitute mainstays in cardiovascular prevention/treatment. However, the role of platelet tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) has remained unexplored in hypercholesterolemia. We aimed to study platelet TF-PCA and its relationship with membrane cholesterol in vitro and in 45 hypercholesterolemic patients (HC-patients) (LDL-C >3.37 mmol/L, 130 mg/dL) and 37 control subjects (LDL-C <3.37 mmol/L). The effect of 1-month administration of 80 mg/day atorvastatin (n = 21) and 20 mg/day rosuvastatin (n = 24) was compared.

      Methods

      Platelet TF-PCA was induced by GPIbα activation with VWF-ristocetin.

      Results

      Cholesterol-enriched platelets in vitro had augmented aggregation/secretion and platelet FXa generation (1.65-fold increase, p = 0.01). HC-patients had 1.5-, 2.3- and 2.5-fold increases in platelet cholesterol, TF protein and activity, respectively; their platelets had neither hyper-aggregation nor endogenous thrombin generation (ETP). Rosuvastatin, but not atorvastatin, normalized platelet cholesterol, TF protein and FXa generation. It also increased slightly the plasma HDL-C levels, which correlated negatively with TF-PCA.

      Conclusions

      Platelets from HC-patients were not hyper-responsive to low concentrations of classical agonists and had normal PRP-ETP, before and after statin administration. However, washed platelets from HC-patients had increased membrane cholesterol, TF protein and TF-PCA. The platelet TF-dependent PCA was specifically expressed after VWF-induced GPIbα activation. Rosuvastatin, but not atorvastatin treatment, normalized the membrane cholesterol, TF protein and TF-PCA in HC-patients, possibly unveiling a new pleiotropic effect of rosuvastatin. Modulation of platelet TF-PCA may become a novel target to prevent/treat atherothrombosis without increasing bleeding risks.

      Keywords

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