- •Those with DM were 8 times more likely to have poor CRF profiles than those without DM.
- •Presence of DM yielded high healthcare expenditure and resource utilization.
- •Improving CRF profile reduced cost independent of DM status.
- •Individuals with DM spent $2774 more than individuals without DM.
Background and aims
Given the prevalence and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM), we studied the impact of a favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditures and resource utilization among individuals without cardiovascular disease (CVD), by DM status.
25,317 participants were categorized into 3 mutually-exclusive strata: “Poor”, “Average” and “Optimal” CRF profiles (≥4, 2–3, 0–1 CRF, respectively). Two-part econometric models were utilized to study cost data.
Mean age was 45 (48% male), with 54% having optimal, 39% average, and 7% poor CRF profiles. Individuals with DM were more likely to have poor CRF profile vs. those without DM (OR 7.7, 95% CI 6.4, 9.2). Individuals with DM/poor CRF profile had a mean annual expenditure of $9,006, compared to $6,461 among those with DM/optimal CRF profile (p < 0.001).
A favorable CRF profile is associated with significantly lower healthcare expenditures and utilization in CVD-free individuals across DM status, suggesting that these individuals require aggressive individualized prescriptions targeting lifestyle modifications and therapeutic treatments.
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Published online: February 08, 2017
Accepted: February 7, 2017
Received in revised form: January 24, 2017
Received: October 12, 2016
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.