Advertisement

Vascular disease in cocaine addiction

      Highlights

      • Cocaine induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best.
      • We review major findings of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine.
      • Given the known vascular toxicity cocaine induces further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity and interacting with the progressing age of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction.

      Abstract

      Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best.
      We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms.
      Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers.
      Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      CUD (cocaine use disorder), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), CT (computed tomography), CBF (cerebral blood flow), 18F-FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
        Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings.
        (NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14–4863) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD2014
        • Afonso L.
        • Mohammad T.
        • Thatai D.
        Crack whips the heart: a review of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 2007; 100: 1040-1043
        • Radunski U.K.
        • et al.
        Increased extracellular volume in asymptomatic cocaine abusers detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.
        J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. (BioMed Central). 2013; 15: 1-2https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-15-S1-E101
        • Darke S.
        • Kaye S.
        • Duflou J.
        Comparative cardiac pathology among deaths due to cocaine toxicity, opioid toxicity and non-drug-related causes.
        Addict. (Abingd. Engl.). 2006; 101: 1771-1777https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01601.x
        • Ren H.
        • et al.
        Cocaine-induced cortical microischemia in the rodent brain: clinical implications.
        Mol. Psychiatry. 2012; 17: 1017-1025https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2011.160
        • Carrillo X.
        • et al.
        Acute coronary syndrome and cocaine use: 8-year prevalence and inhospital outcomes.
        Eur. Heart J. 2011; 32: 1244-1250https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq504
        • McCord J.
        • et al.
        Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Acute Cardiac Care Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology.
        Circulation. 2008; 117: 1897-1907https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.107.188950
        • Hsue P.Y.
        • Salinas C.L.
        • Bolger A.F.
        • Benowitz N.L.
        • Waters D.D.
        Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine.
        Circulation. 2002; 105: 1592-1595
        • Magnano A.R.
        • et al.
        Effect of acute cocaine administration on the QTc interval of habitual users.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 2006; 97: 1244-1246https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.11.046
        • Dressler F.A.
        • Malekzadeh S.
        • Roberts W.C.
        Quantitative analysis of amounts of coronary arterial narrowing in cocaine addicts.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1990; 65: 303-308
        • Ersche K.D.
        • Jones P.S.
        • Williams G.B.
        • Robbins T.W.
        • Bullmore E.T.
        Cocaine dependence: a fast-track for brain ageing?.
        Mol. Psychiatry. 2013; 18: 134-135
        • Goldstein R.Z.
        • Volkow N.D.
        Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: neuroimaging findings and clinical implications.
        Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2011; 12: 652-669https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3119
        • Schwartz B.G.
        • Rezkalla S.
        • Kloner R.A.
        Cardiovascular effects of cocaine.
        Circulation. 2010; 122: 2558-2569https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.110.940569
        • Egashira K.
        • Morgan K.G.
        • Morgan J.P.
        Effects of cocaine on excitation-contraction coupling of aortic smooth muscle from the ferret.
        J. Clin. Investig. 1991; 87: 1322-1328https://doi.org/10.1172/jci115135
        • Nutt D.
        • King L.A.
        • Saulsbury W.
        • Blakemore C.
        Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse.
        Lancet. 2007; 369: 1047-1053https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60464-4
        • Knuepfer M.M.
        Cardiovascular disorders associated with cocaine use: myths and truths.
        Pharmacol. Ther. 2003; 97: 181-222
        • Sharma H.S.
        • Muresanu D.
        • Sharma A.
        • Patnaik R.
        Cocaine-induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and neurotoxicity.
        Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 2009; 88: 297-334https://doi.org/10.1016/s0074-7742(09)88011-2
        • Dietrich J.B.
        Alteration of blood-brain barrier function by methamphetamine and cocaine.
        Cell Tissue Res. 2009; 336: 385-392https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-009-0777-y
        • Bansal S.
        • Morgan J.P.
        Vascular toxicity of cocaine.
        Vasc. Dis. Prev. 2009; 6: 30-35
        • Tella S.R.
        • Goldberg S.R.
        Monoamine transporter and sodium channel mechanisms in the rapid pressor response to cocaine.
        Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1998; 59: 305-312
        • van den Buuse M.
        Role of the mesolimbic dopamine system in cardiovascular homeostasis. Stimulation of the ventral tegmental area modulates the effect of vasopressin on blood pressure in conscious rats.
        Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 1998; 25: 661-668
        • Mannelli M.
        • et al.
        Dopamine and sympathoadrenal activity in man.
        Clin. Exp. Hypertens. (New York, N.Y.:1993). 1997; 19: 163-179
        • Finkel J.B.
        • Marhefka G.D.
        Rethinking cocaine-associated chest pain and acute coronary syndromes.
        Mayo Clin. Proc. 2011; 86: 1198-1207https://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2011.0338
        • Diercks D.B.
        • et al.
        Illicit stimulant use in a United States heart failure population presenting to the emergency department (from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry Emergency Module).
        Am. J. Cardiol. 2008; 102: 1216-1219https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.06.045
        • De Giorgi A.
        • et al.
        Cocaine and acute vascular diseases.
        Curr. Drug Abuse Rev. 2012; 5: 129-134
        • Volkow N.D.
        • Fowler J.S.
        • Ding Y.-S.
        Cardiotoxic Properties of Cocaine: Studies with Positron Emission Tomography.
        The National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1996: 159-174
        • Fowler J.S.
        • et al.
        PET studies of cocaine inhibition of myocardial norepinephrine uptake.
        Synapse. 1994; 16: 312-317https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.890160407
        • Kloner R.A.
        • Hale S.
        • Alker K.
        • Rezkalla S.
        The effects of acute and chronic cocaine use on the heart.
        Circulation. 1992; 85: 407-419
        • Sordo L.
        • et al.
        Cocaine use and risk of stroke: a systematic review.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014; 142: 1-13https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.041
        • Treadwell S.D.
        • Robinson T.G.
        Cocaine use and stroke.
        Postgrad. Med. J. 2007; 83: 389-394https://doi.org/10.1136/pgmj.2006.055970
        • Büttner A.
        • Mall G.
        • Penning R.
        • Sachs H.
        • Weis S.
        The neuropathology of cocaine abuse.
        Leg. Med. 2003; 5: S240
        • Farooq M.U.
        • Bhatt A.
        • Patel M.
        Neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and ethanol.
        J. Med. Toxicol. Off. J. Am. Coll. Med. Toxicol. 2009; 5: 134-138
        • Du C.
        • et al.
        Cocaine increases the intracellular calcium concentration in brain independently of its cerebrovascular effects.
        J. Neurosci. Off. J. Soc. Neurosci. 2006; 26: 11522-11531https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3612-06.2006
        • Fandino J.
        • Sherman J.D.
        • Zuccarello M.
        • Rapoport R.M.
        Cocaine-induced endothelin-1-dependent spasm in rabbit basilar artery in vivo.
        J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2003; 41: 158-161
        • Sáez C.G.
        • et al.
        Atorvastatin reduces the proadhesive and prothrombotic endothelial cell phenotype induced by cocaine and plasma from cocaine consumers in vitro.
        Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2014; https://doi.org/10.1161/atvbaha.114.304535
        • Sáez C.G.
        • et al.
        Increased number of circulating endothelial cells and plasma markers of endothelial damage in chronic cocaine users.
        Thromb. Res. 2011; 128: e18-23https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2011.04.019
        • Kolodgie F.D.
        • Virmani R.
        • Cornhill J.F.
        • Herderick E.E.
        • Smialek J.
        Increase in atherosclerosis and adventitial mast cells in cocaine abusers: an alternative mechanism of cocaine-associated coronary vasospasm and thrombosis.
        J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1991; 17: 1553-1560
        • Siegel A.J.
        • Sholar M.B.
        • Mendelson J.H.
        • et al.
        Cocaine-induced erythrocytosis and increase in von willebrand factor: evidence for drug-related blood doping and prothrombotic effects.
        Arch. Intern. Med. 1999; 159: 1925-1929https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.159.16.1925
        • Alia-Klein N.
        • Parvaz M.A.
        • Woicik P.A.
        • et al.
        Gene × disease interaction on orbitofrontal gray matter in cocaine addiction.
        Arch. General Psychiatry. 2011; 68: 283-294https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.10
        • Goldstein R.Z.
        • Volkow N.D.
        Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex.
        Am. J. Psychiatry. 2002; 159: 1642-1652
        • Goldstein R.Z.
        • et al.
        Is decreased prefrontal cortical sensitivity to monetary reward associated with impaired motivation and self-control in cocaine addiction?.
        Am. J. Psychiatry. 2007; 164: 43-51https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.164.1.43
        • Narvaez J.C.
        • et al.
        Peripheral toxicity in crack cocaine use disorders.
        Neurosci. Lett. 2013; 544: 80-84https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.03.045
        • Yusuf S.
        • Reddy S.
        • Ôunpuu S.
        • Anand S.
        Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization.
        Circulation. 2001; 104: 2746-2753https://doi.org/10.1161/hc4601.099487
        • Janković S.
        • Stojisavljević D.
        • Janković J.
        • Erić M.
        • Marinković J.
        Association of socioeconomic status measured by education, and cardiovascular health: a population-based cross-sectional study.
        BMJ Open. 2014; 4https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005222
        • Pradhan L.
        • Mondal D.
        • Chandra S.
        • Ali M.
        • Agrawal K.C.
        Molecular analysis of cocaine-induced endothelial dysfunction: role of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide.
        Cardiovasc. Toxicol. 2008; 8: 161-171https://doi.org/10.1007/s12012-008-9025-z
        • Lai H.
        • et al.
        Cocaine abstinence and reduced use associated with lowered marker of endothelial dysfunction in African Americans: a Preliminary study.
        J. Addict. Med. 2015; 9: 331-339https://doi.org/10.1097/adm.0000000000000140
        • Tai H.
        • Lai H.
        • Jani J.
        • Lai S.
        • Kickler T.S.
        HIV infection and cocaine use induce endothelial damage and dysfunction in African Americans.
        Int. J. Cardiol. 2012; 161: 83-87https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.04.034
        • Guha P.
        • Harraz M.M.
        • Snyder S.H.
        Cocaine elicits autophagic cytotoxicity via a nitric oxide-GAPDH signaling cascade.
        Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2016; 113: 1417-1422https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524860113
        • He G.Q.
        • Zhang A.
        • Altura B.T.
        • Altura B.M.
        Cocaine-induced cerebrovasospasm and its possible mechanism of action.
        J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1994; 268: 1532-1539
        • Lucena J.
        • et al.
        Cocaine-related sudden death: a prospective investigation in south-west Spain.
        Eur. Heart J. 2010; 31: 318-329https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehp557
        • Fox H.C.
        • et al.
        Immune system inflammation in cocaine dependent individuals: implications for medications development.
        Hum. Psychopharmacol. 2012; 27: 156-166https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.1251
        • O'Leary M.E.
        • Hancox J.C.
        Role of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channels in the development of cocaine-associated cardiac arrhythmias.
        Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2010; 69: 427-442https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03629.x
        • Buchholz S.
        • Figtree G.A.
        • Grieve S.
        Cocaine-induced myocardial injury identified as multiple mid-wall foci of enhancement by contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI and large troponin rise.
        J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. (BioMed Central). 2010; 12: 1-2https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-12-S1-P114
        • Kilts C.D.
        • Gross R.E.
        • Ely T.D.
        • Drexler K.P.G.
        The neural correlates of cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent women.
        Am. J. Psychiatry. 2004; 161: 233-241https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.161.2.233
        • Bolla K.I.
        • Cadet J.-L.
        • London E.D.
        The neuropsychiatry of chronic cocaine abuse.
        J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 1998; 10: 280-289https://doi.org/10.1176/jnp.10.3.280
        • Klonoff D.C.
        • Andrews B.T.
        • Obana W.G.
        Stroke associated with cocaine use.
        Arch. Neurol. 1989; 46: 989-993
        • Hardebo J.E.
        • Edvinsson L.
        • Owman C.
        • Svendgaard N.A.
        Potentiation and antagonism of serotonin effects on intracranial and extracranial vessels. Possible implications in migraine.
        Neurology. 1978; 28: 64-70
        • Dabbouseh N.M.
        • Ardelt A.
        Cocaine mediated apoptosis of vascular cells as a mechanism for carotid artery dissection leading to ischemic stroke.
        Med. Hypotheses. 2011; 77: 201-203https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.04.011
        • Petitti D.B.
        • Sidney S.
        • Quesenberry C.
        • Bernstein A.
        Stroke and cocaine or amphetamine use.
        Epidemiol. (Camb. Mass.). 1998; 9: 596-600
        • Du J.
        • et al.
        Cholesterol is associated with the presence of a lipid core in carotid plaque of asymptomatic, young-to-middle-aged African Americans with and without HIV infection and cocaine use residing in inner-city Baltimore, Md., USA.
        Cerebrovasc. Dis. (Basel, Switz.). 2012; 33: 295-301https://doi.org/10.1159/000334661
        • Siniscalchi A.
        • et al.
        Cocaine dependence and stroke: pathogenesis and management.
        Curr. Neurovascular Res. 2015; 12: 163-172
        • Brust J.C.
        Clinical, radiological, and pathological aspects of cerebrovascular disease associated with drug abuse.
        Stroke J. Cereb. Circ. 1993; 24 (discussion I134-125): I129-I133
        • Kaufman M.J.
        • Levin J.M.
        • Ross M.H.
        • et al.
        Cocaine-induced cerebral vasoconstriction detected in humans with magnetic resonance angiography.
        JAMA. 1998; 279: 376-380https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.5.376
        • Volkow N.D.
        • Mullani N.
        • Gould K.L.
        • Adler S.
        • Krajewski K.
        Cerebral blood flow in chronic cocaine users: a study with positron emission tomography.
        Br. J. Psychiatry J. Ment. Sci. 1988; 152: 641-648
        • Siniscalchi A.
        • et al.
        Editorial: cocaine and cerebral small vessel: is it a negative factor for intravenous thrombolysis?.
        Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol. 2016; 14: 304-306
        • Baud M.O.
        • Brown E.G.
        • Singhal N.S.
        • Hemphill J.C.
        Immediate hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator injection in 2 cocaine users.
        Stroke; a J. Cereb. Circ. 2015; 46: e167-e169https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.115.008687
        • Yuan Z.
        • Luo Z.
        • Volkow N.D.
        • Pan Y.
        • Du C.
        Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo.
        NeuroImage. 2011; 54: 1130-1139https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.08.045
        • Johnson B.A.
        • Devous Sr., M.D.
        • Ruiz P.
        • Ait-Daoud N.
        Treatment advances for cocaine-induced ischemic stroke: focus on dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonists.
        Am. J. Psychiatry. 2001; 158: 1191-1198
        • Devonshire I.M.
        • et al.
        Haemodynamic responses to sensory stimulation are enhanced following acute cocaine administration.
        Neuroimage. 2004; 22: 1744-1753https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.03.042
        • Movahed A.
        • et al.
        Norepinephrine-induced left ventricular dysfunction in anesthetized and conscious, sedated dogs.
        Int. J. Cardiol. 1994; 45: 23-33
        • Paraschin K.
        • Guerra de Andrade A.
        • Rodrigues Ps J.
        Assessment of myocardial infarction by CT angiography and cardiovascular MRI in patients with cocaine-associated chest pain: a pilot study.
        Br. J. Radiol. 2012; 85: e274-e278https://doi.org/10.1259/bjr/52001979
        • Brickner M.E.
        • Willard J.E.
        • Eichhorn E.J.
        • Black J.
        • Grayburn P.A.
        Left ventricular hypertrophy associated with chronic cocaine abuse.
        Circulation. 1991; 84: 1130-1135
        • Aquaro G.D.
        • et al.
        Silent myocardial damage in cocaine addicts.
        Heart (Br. Card. Soc. 2011; 97: 2056-2062https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2011.226977
        • Kozor R.
        • et al.
        Regular cocaine use is associated with increased systolic blood pressure, aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass in young otherwise healthy individuals.
        PLoS One. 2014; 9: 1-8https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089710
        • Lee H.O.
        • Eisenberg M.J.
        • Drew D.
        • Schiller N.B.
        Intraventricular thrombus after cocaine-induced myocardial infarction.
        Am. Heart J. 1995; 129: 403-405
        • Hollander J.E.
        • Hoffman R.S.
        • Burstein J.L.
        • et al.
        Cocaine-associated myocardial infarction: mortality and complications.
        Arch. Intern. Med. 1995; 155: 1081-1086https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1995.00430100117013
        • Chakko S.
        • et al.
        Cardiac manifestations of cocaine abuse: a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic men with a history of long-term abuse of “crack” cocaine.
        J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1992; 20: 1168-1174
        • Maceira A.M.
        • et al.
        Long term effects of cocaine on the heart assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3T.
        J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. Off. J. Soc. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 2014; 16: 26https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429x-16-26
        • Liu C.-Y.
        • et al.
        Cocaine use as an independent predictor of cardiac steatosis: initial experience by 1H spectroscopy.
        J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. (BioMed Central). 2010; 12: 1-2https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-12-S1-O90
        • Redheuil A.
        • et al.
        Long-term cocaine use is associated with premature alterations in regional aortic strain and distensibility measured by magnetic resonance imaging.
        J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. (BioMed Central). 2010; 12: 1-2https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-12-S1-P146
        • Lai S.
        • et al.
        Effect of cocaine use on coronary calcium among black adults in Baltimore, Maryland.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 2002; 90: 326-328
        • Mangiafico R.A.
        • Sarnataro F.
        • Mangiafico M.
        • Fiore C.E.
        Impaired cognitive performance in asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease: relation to C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels.
        Age Ageing. 2006; 35: 60-65https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afi219
        • Krabbe K.S.
        • Pedersen M.
        • Bruunsgaard H.
        Inflammatory mediators in the elderly.
        Exp. Gerontol. 2004; 39: 687-699
        • Singh-Manoux A.
        • Britton A.R.
        • Marmot M.
        Vascular disease and cognitive function: evidence from the Whitehall II study.
        J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2003; 51: 1445-1450https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51464.x
        • Haley A.P.
        • et al.
        Carotid artery intima-media thickness and cognition in cardiovascular disease.
        Int. J. Cardiol. 2007; 121: 148-154https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.10.032
        • de Lange T.E.
        • Simsek S.
        • Kramer M.H.
        • Nanayakkara P.W.
        A case of cocaine-induced panhypopituitarism with human neutrophil elastase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.
        Eur. J. Endocrinol./Eur. Fed. Endocr. Soc. 2009; 160: 499-502https://doi.org/10.1530/eje-08-0941
        • Goldberg R.A.
        • et al.
        Orbital inflammation and optic neuropathies associated with chronic sinusitis of intranasal cocaine abuse: possible role of contiguous inflammation.
        Arch. Ophthalmol. 1989; 107: 831-835https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1989.01070010853028
        • Neugebauer P.
        • Fricke J.
        • Neugebauer A.
        • Kirsch A.
        • Russmann W.
        Sinuorbital complications after intranasal cocaine abuse.
        Strabismus. 2004; 12: 205-209https://doi.org/10.1080/09273970490515900
        • Trimarchi M.
        • et al.
        Sinonasal osteocartilaginous necrosis in cocaine abusers: experience in 25 patients.
        Am. J. Rhinol. 2003; 17: 33-43
        • Alexandrakis G.
        • Tse D.T.
        • Rosa Jr., R.H.
        • Johnson T.E.
        Nasolacrimal duct obstruction and orbital cellulitis associated with chronic intranasal cocaine abuse.
        Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chic. Ill.:1960). 1999; 117: 1617-1622
        • Bachi K.
        • Sierra S.
        • Volkow N.D.
        • Goldstein R.Z.
        • Alia-Klein N.
        Is biological aging accelerated in drug addiction?.
        Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 2017; 13: 34-39
        • O'Conor K.
        • Chang A.M.
        • Wu A.H.
        • Hollander J.E.
        Myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein in patients with cocaine-associated chest pain.
        Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2013; 31: 664-669https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2012.11.026
        • Lai S.
        • et al.
        Chronic cocaine use and its association with myocardial steatosis evaluated by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in African Americans.
        J. Addict. Med. 2015; 9: 31-39https://doi.org/10.1097/adm.0000000000000078
        • Olanow C.W.
        • et al.
        TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.
        Lancet. Neurol. 2006; 5: 1013-1020https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(06)70602-0
        • Siniscalchi A.
        • Lentidoro W.
        • Pisanil E.
        • De Sarro G.
        • Gallelli L.
        Intracerebral hemorrhage in a middle-aged cocaine user despite normal blood pressures.
        Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2016;
        • D'Agostino R.B.
        • et al.
        Primary and subsequent coronary risk appraisal: new results from the Framingham study.
        Am. heart J. 2000; 139: 272-281
        • The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
        European Drug Report 2013: Trends and Developments.
        The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Portugal: LisbonMay 2013
        • Cornish J.W.
        • O'Brien C.P.
        Crack cocaine abuse: an epidemic with many public health consequences.
        Annu. Rev. Public Health. 1996; 17: 259-273https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.17.050196.001355
        • Sanz J.
        • Fayad Z.A.
        Imaging of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
        Nature. 2008; 451: 953-957
        • Fuster V.
        • Jiménez-Borreguero L.-J.
        • Sanz G.
        • Ibáñez B.
        HIV and cardiovascular disease: urgent need for sub-clinical detection.
        Nat. Rev. Cardiol. (CNIC Ed.). 2010; 7: 17-21
        • Fayad Z.A.
        • et al.
        Rationale and design of dal-PLAQUE: a study assessing efficacy and safety of dalcetrapib on progression or regression of atherosclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
        Am. Heart J. 2011; 162 (e212): 214-221https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2011.05.006
        • Fayad Z.A.
        • et al.
        Safety and efficacy of dalcetrapib on atherosclerotic disease using novel non-invasive multimodality imaging (dal-PLAQUE): a randomised clinical trial.
        Lancet. 2011; 378: 1547-1559https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61383-4
        • Wong S.K.
        • et al.
        Atherosclerosis imaging using 3D black blood TSE SPACE vs 2D TSE.
        World J. Radiol. 2014; 6: 192-202https://doi.org/10.4329/wjr.v6.i5.192
        • Parvaz M.A.
        • Alia-Klein N.
        • Woicik P.A.
        • Volkow N.D.
        • Goldstein R.Z.
        Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors.
        Rev. Neurosci. 2011; 22: 609-624https://doi.org/10.1515/RNS.2011.055
        • Narendran R.
        • et al.
        Cocaine abuse in humans is not associated with increased microglial activation: an 18-kDa translocator protein positron emission tomography imaging study with [11C]PBR28.
        J. Neurosci. Off. J. Soc. Neurosci. 2014; 34: 9945-9950https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0928-14.2014

      Linked Article

      • Reply to: “β-blocker treatment of vascular disease in cocaine addiction”
        AtherosclerosisVol. 264
        • Preview
          In his Letter to the Editor, John R. Richards suggested that our statements regarding the use of β-blockers [1] are “incorrect and should be discussed further and amended to reflect modern-day evidence”. Richards and colleagues (2016) performed an extensive systematic review on the pharmacologic treatment of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity and determined β-blockers were safe and effective, especially for concomitant cocaine-induced hypertension and tachycardia [2].
        • Full-Text
        • PDF
      • β-blocker treatment of vascular disease in cocaine addiction
        AtherosclerosisVol. 264
        • Preview
          I appreciated the article by Bachi and colleagues regarding vascular disease in cocaine addiction [1]. However, their statements regarding the use of β-blockers are incorrect and should be discussed further and amended to reflect modern-day evidence. In the abstract, the authors write “Treatment for cocaine-induced acute vascular events may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions. For example, enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers, which can lead to severe hypertension and coronary vasoconstriction resulting from the interaction of β-blockers with cocaine.” with an outdated supporting reference [2].
        • Full-Text
        • PDF