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Elevated systemic heme and iron levels as risk factor for vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis: Evidence from a beta-thalassemia cohort study

      Aim: Increasing evidence from animal studies suggests that free heme exerts vasculotoxic, pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant effects due to its ability to trigger endothelial and immune cells activation. Moreover, a role for heme and iron has been recently postulated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Whether these findings are clinically relevant has to be determined.
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