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Molecular and functional characterization of familial chylomicronemia syndrome

      Highlights

      • Panel sequencing is also useful in familial chylomicronemia syndrome.
      • LPL gene was found to be the major driver of this condition.
      • Hyperchylomicronemia may not be a cause of atherosclerosis.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Familial chylomicronemia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) due to mutations in lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-associated genes. Few data exist on the clinical features of the disorder or on comprehensive genetic approaches to uncover the causative genes and mutations.

      Methods

      Eight patients diagnosed with familial hyperchylomicronemia with recessive inheritance were included in this study (two males and six females; median age of onset 23.0 years; mean triglyceride level 3446 mg/dl). We evaluated their clinical features, including coronary artery disease using coronary computed tomography, and performed targeted next-generation sequencing on a panel comprising 4813 genes associated with known clinical phenotypes. After standard filtering for allele frequency <1% and in silico annotation prediction, we used three types of variant filtering to identify causative mutations: homozygous mutations in known familial hyperchylomicronemia-associated genes, homozygous mutations with high damaging scores in novel genes, and deleterious mutations within 37 genes known to be associated with HTG.

      Results

      A total of 1810 variants out of the 73,389 identified with 94.3% mean coverage (×20) were rare and nonsynonymous. Among these, our schema detected four pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in the LPL gene (p.Ala248LeufsTer4, p.Arg270Cys, p.Ala361Thr, and p.Val227Gly), including one novel mutation and a variant of uncertain significance. Patients harboring LPL gene mutations showed no severe atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries, but recurrent pancreatitis with long-term exposure to HTG was observed.

      Conclusions

      These results demonstrate that LPL gene plays a major role in extreme HTG associated with hyperchylomicronemia, although the condition may not cause severe atherosclerosis.

      Keywords

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      Linked Article

      • Gene targeting for chylomicronemia syndrome: The brave new world
        AtherosclerosisVol. 269
        • Preview
          Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) or its cofactors. Historically, the syndrome has been considered non-atherogenic for the low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), even though premature atherosclerosis has been hypothesized in FCS subjects as a consequence of a defective lipolysis [1].
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