- •The measurement of serum levels of complement factor C3 constitutes a routine practice in most clinical immunology laboratories.
- •C3 hypocomplementemia at month 6 after kidney transplantation was associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of atherothrombotic events.
- •This association was independent of other well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
- •The inclusion of this parameter improves the accuracy of clinical predictive models for post-transplant cardiovascular disease.
Background and aims
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Explained and unexplained ischemic heart disease risk after renal transplantation.J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2000; 11: 1735-1743
- Predicting coronary heart disease in renal transplant recipients: a prospective study.Kidney Int. 2004; 66: 441-447
- Homoarginine and clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients: results from the assessment of lescol in renal transplantation study.Transplantation. 2015; 99: 1470-1476
- Decreased renal function is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular death after renal transplantation.Transplantation. 2003; 75: 1291-1295
- Cytomegalovirus exposure and cardiovascular disease in kidney transplant recipients.J. Infect. Dis. 2013; 207: 1569-1575
- Effect of immunosuppressive agents on long-term survival of renal transplant recipients: focus on the cardiovascular risk.Drugs. 2004; 64: 2047-2073
- The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease.Mol. Immunol. 2014; 61: 135-148
- The complement system and toll-like receptors as integrated players in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.Atherosclerosis. 2015; 241: 480-494
- Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis.Nat. Immunol. 2010; 11: 785-797
- Overview of complement activation and regulation.Semin. Nephrol. 2013; 33: 479-492
- Complement in atherosclerosis: friend or foe?.J. Thromb. Haemostasis. 2011; 9: 428-440
- Dendritic cells in the arterial wall express C1q: potential significance in atherogenesis.Cardiovasc. Res. 2003; 60: 175-186
- Complement modulation in solid-organ transplantation.Transplant. Rev. 2014; 28: 119-125
- The complement system in liver diseases.Cell. Mol. Immunol. 2006; 3: 333-340
- Complement and atherosclerosis-united to the point of no return?.Clin. Biochem. 2013; 46: 20-25
- Association of serum C3 levels with the risk of myocardial infarction.Am. J. Med. 1995; 98: 357-364
- Complement C3 and C4 in plasma and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: a population-based cohort study.Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 2007; 14: 392-397
- Serum complement C3: a determinant of cardiometabolic risk, additive to the metabolic syndrome, in middle-aged population.Metabolism. 2010; 59: 628-634
- Serum complement C3/C4 ratio, a novel marker for recurrent cardiovascular events.Am. J. Cardiol. 2007; 99: 890-895
- Usefulness of the serum complement component C4 as a predictor of stroke in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease referred for coronary angiography.Am. J. Cardiol. 2007; 100: 164-168
- Strong predictive value of mannose-binding lectin levels for cardiovascular risk of hemodialysis patients.J. Transl. Med. 2016; 14: 236
- Monitoring of immunoglobulin levels identifies kidney transplant recipients at high risk of infection.Am. J. Transplant. 2012; 12: 2763-2773
- Hypocomplementemia in kidney transplant recipients: impact on the risk of infectious complications.Am. J. Transplant. 2013; 13: 685-694
- A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.Ann. Intern. Med. 2009; 150: 604-612
- Third universal definition of myocardial infarction.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2012; 60: 1581-1598
- Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.Stroke. 2013; 44: 870-947
- Role of complement activation in atherosclerosis.Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2003; 14: 477-482
- Complement components, but not complement inhibitors, are upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques.Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2001; 21: 1214-1219
- The metabolic syndrome in relation to complement component 3 and postprandial lipemia in patients from an outpatient lipid clinic and healthy volunteers.Atherosclerosis. 2007; 190: 167-173
- Autoantibodies, complement and type I interferon as biomarkers for personalized medicine in SLE.Lupus. 2016; 25: 823-829
- Risk factors in the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.Arthritis Care Res. 2014; 66: 1177-1185
- Immune complexes of ß-2-glicoprotein I bounded to IgA: a novel marker able to predict thrombosis after renal transplantation in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.Circulation. 2017; (Mar [epub ahead of print]): 1
- Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system.Circulation. 2007; 116: 85-97
- Immunological evaluation of renal transplant patients: changes in levels of beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulins and complement components during graft rejection.J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 1983; 12: 17-22
- Predictive value of serum complement (C3) in renal allograft rejection.Br. J. Surg. 1980; 67: 500-502
- C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular disease prediction.N. Engl. J. Med. 2012; 367: 1310-1320
- C-reactive protein colocalizes with complement in human hearts during acute myocardial infarction.Circulation. 1997; 95: 97-103
- C-reactive protein and complement are important mediators of tissue damage in acute myocardial infarction.J. Exp. Med. 1999; 190: 1733-1740
☆This study was partially presented at the IV Congress of the Spanish Society of Transplantation (SET), Santander, May 6-8, 2016.