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Lipid profile evaluation and severe hypercholesterolaemia screening in the middle-aged population according to nationwide primary prevention programme in Lithuania

  • Sandra Kutkiene
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinic of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Santariskiu str. 2, LT-08661, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Zaneta Petrulioniene
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinic of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Santariskiu str. 2, LT-08661, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Aleksandras Laucevicius
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinic of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Santariskiu str. 2, LT-08661, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Rimante Cerkauskiene
    Affiliations
    Children‘s Hospital, Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 7, LT-08406, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Justina Staigyte
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Akvile Saulyte
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Emilija Petrulionyte
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Urte Gargalskaite
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Egle Skiauteryte
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Gabija Matuzeviciene
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Milda Kovaite
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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  • Egidija Rinkuniene
    Affiliations
    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinic of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Santariskiu str. 2, LT-08661, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, M. K. Ciurlionio str. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania

    Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos, Santariskiu str. 2, 08661, Vilnius, Lithuania
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      Highlights

      • 80.2% of adults without overt CVD had LDL-C ≥3 mmol/l.
      • Severe hypercholesterolaemia (SH) was present in 3.2% of middle-aged Lithuanians.
      • Decreasing prevalence of SH was observed during 2009–2016 in Lithuania.
      • Likely phenotypic familial hypercholesterolaemia was found in 1.5% of middle-aged adults.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of premature death in Lithuania where abnormal lipid levels are very common among middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate lipid profile in middle-aged Lithuanians and perform population-based severe hypercholesterolaemia (SH) screening.

      Methods

      This study included men aged 40–54 and women aged 50–64 years without overt CVD, participating in the Lithuanian High Cardiovascular Risk (LitHiR) primary prevention programme during the period 2009–2016. Lipidograms of 92,373 adults (58.4% women and 41.6% men) included in the database were analysed and screening for SH was performed.

      Results

      The mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) among participants were 6.08 mmol/l, 3.87 mmol/l, and 1.59 mmol/l, respectively. Any type of dyslipidaemia was present in 89.7%, and severe dyslipidaemia in 13.4% of the study population.
      80.2% of adults without overt CVD had LDL-C ≥3 mmol/l. SH (LDL-C ≥6 mmol/l) was detected in 3.2% of study participants. Prevalence of SH decreased from 2.91% to 2.82% during the period 2009–2016 (p for trend = 0.003). LDL-C ≥6.5 mmol/l was observed in 1.5% of subjects while both LDL-C ≥6.5 mmol/l, and TG ≤ 1.7 mmol/l was found in 0.6% of subjects.

      Conclusions

      SH was present in 3.2% of the middle-aged population without overt CVD. Slightly decreasing prevalence of SH was observed during the period 2009–2016 in Lithuania. Likely phenotypic familial hypercholesterolaemia was observed in 1.5% of middle-aged Lithuanians. Further clinical and genetic evaluation of people with SH is needed to detect familial forms of SH.

      Keywords

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