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Association between serum magnesium levels and peripheral artery disease: A leg too short?

  • Alberto Morello
    Affiliations
    Unità Operativa di Interventistica Cardiovascolare, Presidio Ospedaliero Pineta Grande, Castel Volturno, Italy
    Unità Operativa di Emodinamica, Casa di Salute Santa Lucia, San Giuseppe Vesuviano, Italy
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  • Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100, Latina, Italy.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy
    IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, Italy
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  • Giacomo Frati
    Affiliations
    Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy
    IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, Italy
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  • Arturo Giordano
    Affiliations
    Unità Operativa di Interventistica Cardiovascolare, Presidio Ospedaliero Pineta Grande, Castel Volturno, Italy
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      Magnesium (Mg2+) is the fourth most plentiful cation in the human body, being continuously re-stocked by means of food and water intake, and playing an active role in a plethora of essential physiological, biochemical, and cellular processes regulating cardiovascular function [
      • Al Alawi A.M.
      • Majoni S.W.
      • Falhammar H.
      Magnesium and human health: perspectives and research directions.
      ,
      • Kolte D.
      • Vijayaraghavan K.
      • Khera S.
      • Sica D.A.
      • Frishman W.H.
      Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases.
      ]. It plays a critical role in modulating smooth vascular muscle tone, endothelial cell function and myocardial excitability and thus it is essential in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias [
      • Kolte D.
      • Vijayaraghavan K.
      • Khera S.
      • Sica D.A.
      • Frishman W.H.
      Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases.
      ]. Notably, clinical and experimental evidence highlights how magnesium favors vasodilation, reduces vascular resistance and improves blood flow in systemic, coronary, cerebral and renal circulations [
      • Vigorito C.
      • Giordano A.
      • Ferraro P.
      • Acanfora D.
      • De Caprio L.
      • Naddeo C.
      • Rengo F.
      Hemodynamic effects of magnesium sulfate on the normal human heart.
      ]. Despite extensive data on the cardiac role of magnesium, its impact on peripheral vascular disease is less established. Notably, peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a strong, independent predictor of CVD risk and has become in itself an extremely serious public health problem, impacting hundreds of million people, with major morbidity and mortality implications [
      • Emdin C.A.
      • Anderson S.G.
      • Callender T.
      • Conrad N.
      • Salimi-Khorshidi G.
      • Mohseni H.
      • Woodward M.
      • Rahimi K.
      Usual blood pressure, peripheral arterial disease, and vascular risk: cohort study of 4.2 million adults.
      ].

      Keywords

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