PCSK9 in HIV infection: New opportunity or red herring?

  • Massimiliano Ruscica
    Corresponding author. Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milano, Italy. Tel.: 00390250318220; fax: 00390250318297.
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Gerald F. Watts
    School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    Lipid Disorders Clinic, Cardiometabolic Services, Department of Cardiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia
    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Australia Network, Australia
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  • Cesare R. Sirtori
    Centro Dislipidemie, A.S.S.T. Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy
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      While modern drug therapy has improved survival of patients with immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of myocardial infarction among affected individuals has increased by 50% [
      • Freiberg M.S.
      • Chang C.C.
      • Kuller L.H.
      • et al.
      HIV infection and the risk of acute myocardial infarction.
      ]. This is not explicable by conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and could relate to HIV infection itself or to specific drug treatments [
      • Hsue P.Y.
      • Waters D.D.
      Time to recognize HIV infection as a major cardiovascular risk factor.


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