- •CHALLENGE ESUS/CS registry is a large transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) registry for cryptogenic stroke patients.
- •CHALLENGE ESUS/CS registry clarified potential embolic sources.
- •Large aortic arch plaques were closely related to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores.
- •Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was linked to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores.
- •Right-to-left shunt was inversely associated with CHA2DS2-VASc score.
Background and aims
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Embolic strokes of undetermined source: the case for a new clinical construct.Lancet Neurol. 2014; 13: 429-438
- Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch and the risk of ischemic stroke.N. Engl. J. Med. 1994; 331: 1474-1479
- Effect of medical treatment in stroke patients with patent foramen ovale: patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke study.Circulation. 2002; 105: 2625-2631
- Aortic arch plaques and risk of recurrent stroke and death.Circulation. 2009; 119: 2376-2382
- Recurrent cerebrovascular events associated with patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, or both.N. Engl. J. Med. 2001; 345: 1740-1746
- Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation.N. Engl. J. Med. 2014; 370: 2478-2486
- Atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke.N. Engl. J. Med. 2014; 370: 2467-2477
- Embolic strokes of undetermined source in the Athens stroke registry: a descriptive analysis.Stroke. 2015; 46: 176-181
- Rivaroxaban for stroke prevention after embolic stroke of undetermined source.N. Engl. J. Med. 2018; 378: 2191-2201
- Design of Randomized, double-blind, Evaluation in secondary Stroke Prevention comparing the EfficaCy and safety of the oral Thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs. acetylsalicylic acid in patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS).Int. J. Stroke. 2015; 10: 1309-1312
- Rivaroxaban or aspirin for patent foramen ovale and embolic stroke of undetermined source: a prespecified subgroup analysis from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial.Lancet Neurol. 2018; 17: 1053-1060
- Rosuvastatin may stabilize atherosclerotic aortic plaque: transesophageal echocardiographic study in the EPISTEME trial.Atherosclerosis. 2015; 239: 476-482
- Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch as a risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke.N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 334 (French Study of Aortic Plaques in): 1216-1221
- Emerging risk factors for recurrent vascular events in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source.Stroke. 2016; 47: 2714-2721
- ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS.Eur. Heart J. 2016; 37 (2016): 2893-2962
- Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the national registry of atrial fibrillation.J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2001; 285: 2864-2870
- Risk stratification for recurrence and mortality in embolic stroke of undetermined source.Stroke. 2016; 47: 2278-2285
- Aging, aortic arch calcification, and multiple brain infarcts are associated with aortogenic brain embolism.Cerebrovasc. Dis. 2013; 35: 282-290
- The value of transesophageal echocardiography for embolic strokes of undetermined source.Neurology. 2016; 87: 988-995
- Transesophageal echocardiography in patients with cryptogenic cerebral ischemia.Cardiovasc. Ultrasound. 2009; 7: 15
- Clinical and imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients with and without patent foramen ovale: the PFO-ASA Study. Atrial Septal Aneurysm.Stroke. 2002; 33: 706-711
- Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke in older patients.N. Engl. J. Med. 2007; 357: 2262-2268
- Characterization of patients with embolic strokes of undetermined source in the NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial.J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 2018; 27: 1673-1682
- The value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for refining stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHADS2 score 0-1: a nationwide cohort study.Thromb. Haemostasis. 2012; 107: 1172-1179
- CHA2DS2-VASc score for identifying truly low-risk atrial fibrillation for stroke: a Korean nationwide cohort study.Stroke. 2017; 48: 2984-2990
- CHADS(2), CHA(2)S(2)DS(2)-VASc, and long-term stroke outcome in patients without atrial fibrillation.Neurology. 2013; 80: 1009-1017
- Mobile aortic plaques are a cause of multiple brain infarcts seen on diffusion-weighted imaging.Stroke. 2007; 38: 2470-2476
- Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts.Mayo Clin. Proc. 1984; 59: 17-20
- Noninvasive cardiac monitoring for detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter after acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review.Stroke. 2007; 38: 2935-2940
- Cryptogenic stroke: a diagnostic challenge.Neurol. Clin. Pract. 2014; 4: 386-393