Advertisement

Inflammatory diet and preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes in 11–12 year-olds and mid-life adults: A cross-sectional population-based study

  • Addison Davis
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Richard Liu
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jessica A. Kerr
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Melissa Wake
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Liggins Institute and Depart of Paediatrics, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Search for articles by this author
  • Anneke Grobler
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Markus Juonala
    Affiliations
    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

    Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mengjiao Liu
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Louise Baur
    Affiliations
    The Children's Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia

    hThe University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    David Burgner
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    The Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Department of Pediatrics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Kate Lycett
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital Flemington Road, Parkville VIC, 3052, Australia.
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Affiliations
    The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    jDeakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.

      Highlights

      • Pro-inflammatory diet may be a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
      • In adults, a pro-inflammatory diet was associated with cardiovascular phenotypes.
      • Associations in adults were seen for vascular function and microvascular structure.
      • There was little evidence of associations in children.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Pro-inflammatory diet may be a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We examine associations of two inflammatory diet scores with preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes at two life course stages.

      Methods

      Participants: 1771 children (49% girls) aged 11–12 years and 1793 parents (87% mothers, mean age 43.7 (standard deviation 5.2) years) in the Child Health CheckPoint Study. Measures: 23 items in the Australian National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey were used to derive two inflammatory diet scores based on: 1) published evidence of associations with C-reactive protein (literature-derived score), and 2) empirical associations with CheckPoint's inflammatory biomarker (glycoprotein acetyls, GlycA-derived score). Cardiovascular phenotypes assessed vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness, retinal vessel calibre) and function (pulse wave velocity, blood pressure). Analyses: Linear regression models were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position and child pubertal status, plus a sensitivity analysis also including BMI (z-score for children).

      Results

      In adults, both inflammatory diet scores showed small associations with adverse cardiovascular function and microvascular structure. Per standard deviation higher GlycA-derived diet score, pulse wave velocity was 0.17  m/s faster (95% CI 0.11 to 0.22), mean arterial pressure was 1.85  mmHg (1.34–2.37) higher, and retinal arteriolar calibre was 1.29 μm narrower (−2.10 to −0.49). Adding BMI to models attenuated associations towards null. There was little evidence of associations in children.

      Conclusions

      Our findings support cumulative adverse effects of a pro-inflammatory diet on preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes across the life course. Associations evident by mid-life were not present in childhood, when preventive measures should be instituted.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Atherosclerosis
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ridker P.M.
        • Everett B.M.
        • Thuren T.
        • MacFadyen J.G.
        • Chang W.H.
        • Ballantyne C.
        • et al.
        Antiinflammatory therapy with Canakinumab for atherosclerotic disease.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 2017; 377: 1119-1131
        • Zhong X.
        • Guo L.
        • Zhang L.
        • Li Y.
        • He R.
        • Cheng G.
        Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of cardiovascular disease or mortality: a meta-analysis.
        Sci. Rep. 2017; 7: 6367
        • Ruiz-Canela M.
        • Bes-Rastrollo M.
        • Martinez-Gonzalez M.A.
        The role of dietary inflammatory index in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and mortality.
        Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016; 17: 1265
        • Neufcourt L.
        • Assmann K.E.
        • Fezeu L.K.
        • Touvier M.
        • Graffouillere L.
        • Shivappa N.
        • et al.
        Prospective association between the dietary inflammatory index and metabolic syndrome: findings from the SU.VI.MAX study.
        Nutr. Metabol. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2015; 25: 988-996
        • Cordain L.
        • Eaton S.B.
        • Sebastian A.
        • Mann N.
        • Lindeberg S.
        • Watkins B.A.
        • et al.
        Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005; 81: 341-354
        • Myles I.A.
        Fast food fever: reviewing the impacts of the Western diet on immunity.
        Nutr. J. 2014; 13: 61
        • Mozaffarian D.
        Dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity: a comprehensive review.
        Circulation. 2016; 133: 187-225
        • Shivappa N.
        • Steck S.E.
        • Hurley T.G.
        • Hussey J.R.
        • Hebert J.R.
        Designing and developing a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index.
        Publ. Health Nutr. 2014; 17: 1689-1696
        • Alkerwi A.
        • Shivappa N.
        • Crichton G.
        • Hebert J.R.
        No significant independent relationships with cardiometabolic biomarkers were detected in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study population.
        Nutr. Res. 2014; 34: 1058-1065
        • Sokol A.
        • Wirth M.D.
        • Manczuk M.
        • Shivappa N.
        • Zatonska K.
        • Hurley T.G.
        • et al.
        Association between the dietary inflammatory index, waist-to-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome.
        Nutr. Res. 2016; 36: 1298-1303
        • Shivappa N.
        • Godos J.
        • Hebert J.R.
        • Wirth M.D.
        • Piuri G.
        • Speciani A.F.
        • et al.
        Dietary inflammatory index and cardiovascular risk and mortality: a meta-analysis.
        Nutrients. 2018; 10
        • Tyrovolas S.
        • Koyanagi A.
        • Kotsakis G.A.
        • Panagiotakos D.
        • Shivappa N.
        • Wirth M.D.
        • et al.
        Dietary inflammatory potential is linked to cardiovascular disease risk burden in the US adult population.
        Int. J. Cardiol. 2017; 240: 409-413
        • Mazidi M.
        • Shivappa N.
        • Wirth M.D.
        • Hebert J.R.
        • Mikhailidis D.P.
        • Kengne A.P.
        • et al.
        Dietary inflammatory index and cardiometabolic risk in US adults.
        Atherosclerosis. 2018; 276: 23-27
        • Weintraub W.S.
        • Daniels S.R.
        • Burke L.E.
        • Franklin B.A.
        • Goff Jr., D.C.
        • Hayman L.L.
        • et al.
        Value of primordial and primary prevention for cardiovascular disease: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2011; 124: 967-990
        • Bawaked R.A.
        • Schroder H.
        • Ribas-Barba L.
        • Izquierdo-Pulido M.
        • Perez-Rodrigo C.
        • Fito M.
        • et al.
        Association of diet quality with dietary inflammatory potential in youth.
        Food Nutr. Res. 2017; 61: 1328961
        • Correa-Rodriguez M.
        • Gonzalez-Jimenez E.
        • Rueda-Medina B.
        • Tovar-Galvez M.I.
        • Ramirez-Velez R.
        • Correa-Bautista J.E.
        • et al.
        Dietary inflammatory index and cardiovascular risk factors in Spanish children and adolescents.
        Res. Nurs. Health. 2018; 41: 448-458
        • Berenson G.S.
        • Srinivasan S.R.
        • Bao W.
        • Newman 3rd, W.P.
        • Tracy R.E.
        • Wattigney W.A.
        Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1998; 338: 1650-1656
        • Sanson AN J.
        • Ungerer J.
        • Zubrick S.
        • Wilson K.
        • Ainley J.
        Introducing the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Discussion Paper No.1).
        Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne2002
        • Wake M.
        • Clifford S.
        • York E.
        • Mensah F.
        • Gold L.
        • Burgner D.
        • et al.
        Introducing growing up in Australia's child health CheckPoint: a physical and biomarkers module for the longitudinal study of Australian children.
        Fam. Matters. 2014; 95: 15-23
        • Clifford S.A.
        • Davies S.
        • Wake M.
        • Child Health CheckPoint Team
        Child health CheckPoint: cohort summary and methodology of a physical health and biospecimen module for the longitudinal study of Australian children.
        Submitted to BMJ Open October. 2019; (Manuscript ID bmjopen-2017-020261.R1)
        • Rutishauser I.
        • Webb K.
        • Abraham B.
        • Allsopp R.
        Evaluation of Short Dietary Questions from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.
        Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit for Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Canberra2001
        • Otvos J.D.
        • Shalaurova I.
        • Wolak-Dinsmore J.
        • Connelly M.A.
        • Mackey R.H.
        • Stein J.H.
        • et al.
        GlycA: a composite nuclear magnetic resonance biomarker of systemic inflammation.
        Clin. Chem. 2015; 61: 714-723
        • Barbaresko J.
        • Koch M.
        • Schulze M.B.
        • Nothlings U.
        Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review.
        Nutr. Rev. 2013; 71: 511-527
        • Calder P.C.
        • Ahluwalia N.
        • Brouns F.
        • Buetler T.
        • Clement K.
        • Cunningham K.
        • et al.
        Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity.
        Br. J. Nutr. 2011; 106: S5-S78
        • Ritchie S.C.
        • Wurtz P.
        • Nath A.P.
        • Abraham G.
        • Havulinna A.S.
        • Fearnley L.G.
        • et al.
        The biomarker GlycA Is associated with chronic inflammation and predicts long-term risk of severe infection.
        Cell. Syst. 2015; 1: 293-301
        • Ellul S.
        • Wake M.
        • Clifford S.A.
        • Lange K.
        • Wurtz P.
        • Juonala M.
        • Dwyer T.
        • Carlin J.
        • Burgner D.
        • Saffery R.
        Metabolomics: population epidemiology and concordance in 11-12 year old Australians and their parents.
        Submitted to BMJ Open November. 2017; (Manuscript ID bmjopen-2017-020900.R1)
        • Bendel R.B.
        • Afifi A.A.
        Comparison of stopping rules in forward “stepwise” regression.
        J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 1977; 72: 46-53
        • Mickey R.M.
        • Greenland S.
        The impact of confounder selection criteria on effect estimation.
        Am. J. Epidemiol. 1989; 129: 125-137
        • Liu R.
        • Dunn S.
        • Mensah F.K.
        • Grobler A.
        • Lange K.
        • Becker D.
        • Goldsmith G.
        • Carlin J.
        • Juonala M.
        • Wake M.
        • Burgner D.P.
        Carotid artery intima-media thickness, distensibility, and elasticity: population epidemiology and concordance in Australian 11-12 year old and their parents.
        BMJ Open. 2018; (in press)
        • Kahn F.
        • Wake M.
        • Lycett K.
        • Clifford S.A.
        • Burgner D.
        • Goldsmith G.
        • Grobler A.
        • Lange K.
        • Cheung M.
        Vascular function and stiffness: population epidemiology and concordance in 11-12 year old Australians and their parents.
        Submitted to BMJ Open October. 2017; (Manuscript ID bmjopen-2017-020896.R1)
        • Dascalu J.
        • Liu M.
        • Lycett K.
        • Grobler A.
        • Burgner D.
        • Wong T.
        • Wake M.
        Retinal microvasculature: population epidemiology and concordance in 11-12 year old Australians and their parents.
        Submitted to BMJ Open. February 2018; (Manuscript ID bmjopen-2018-022399.R1)
        • Liu R.S.
        • Mensah F.K.
        • Carlin J.
        • Edwards B.
        • Ranganathan S.
        • Cheung M.
        • et al.
        Socioeconomic position is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in mid-childhood: the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2017; 6
        • Doyon A.
        • Kracht D.
        • Bayazit A.K.
        • Deveci M.
        • Duzova A.
        • Krmar R.T.
        • et al.
        Carotid artery intima-media thickness and distensibility in children and adolescents: reference values and role of body dimensions.
        Hypertension. 2013; 62: 550-556
        • Knudtson M.D.
        • Lee K.E.
        • Hubbard L.D.
        • Wong T.Y.
        • Klein R.
        • Klein B.E.
        Revised formulas for summarizing retinal vessel diameters.
        Curr. Eye Res. 2003; 27: 143-149
        • Blakemore T.
        • Strazdins L.
        • Gibbings J.
        Measuring family socioeconomic position.
        Aust. Soc. Policy. 2009; 8: 121-168
        • Gasser C.E.
        • Mensah F.K.
        • Kerr J.A.
        • Wake M.
        Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.
        J. Epidemiol. Community Health. 2017; 71: 1152-1160
        • Petersen A.C.
        • Crockett L.
        • Richards M.
        • Boxer A.
        A self-report measure of pubertal status - reliability, validity, and initial norms.
        J. Youth Adolesc. 1988; 17: 117-133
        • Day F.R.
        • Elks C.E.
        • Murray A.
        • Ong K.K.
        • Perry J.R.
        Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study.
        Sci. Rep. 2015; 5: 11208
        • Kuczmarski R.J.
        • Ogden C.L.
        • Grummer-Strawn L.M.
        • Flegal K.M.
        • Guo S.S.
        • Wei R.
        • et al.
        CDC growth charts: United States.
        Adv. Data. 2000; : 1-27
        • Hubert H.B.
        • Feinleib M.
        • Mcnamara P.M.
        • Castelli W.P.
        Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular-disease - a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study.
        Circulation. 1983; 67: 968-977
        • D'Agostino RB Sr
        • Vasan R.S.
        • Pencina M.J.
        • Wolf P.A.
        • Cobain M.
        • Massaro J.M.
        • et al.
        General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study.
        Circulation. 2008; 117: 743-753
        • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
        A Picture of Overweight and Obesity in Australia 2017.
        (Cat. no.PHE 216) AIHW, Canberra2017
        • Kastorini C.M.
        • Milionis H.J.
        • Esposito K.
        • Giugliano D.
        • Goudevenos J.A.
        • Panagiotakos D.B.
        The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals.
        J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2011; 57: 1299-1313
        • Nettleton J.A.
        • Schulze M.B.
        • Jiang R.
        • Jenny N.S.
        • Burke G.L.
        • Jacobs Jr., D.R.
        A priori-defined dietary patterns and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2008; 88: 185-194
        • Murie-Fernandez M.
        • Irimia P.
        • Toledo E.
        • Martinez-Vila E.
        • Buil-Cosiales P.
        • Serrano-Martinez M.
        • et al.
        Carotid intima-media thickness changes with Mediterranean diet: a randomized trial (PREDIMED-Navarra).
        Atherosclerosis. 2011; 219: 158-162
        • Hummel S.L.
        • Seymour E.M.
        • Brook R.D.
        • Kolias T.J.
        • Sheth S.S.
        • Rosenblum H.R.
        • et al.
        Low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet reduces blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress in hypertensive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
        Hypertension. 2012; 60: 1200-1206
        • Blumenthal J.A.
        • Babyak M.A.
        • Hinderliter A.
        • Watkins L.L.
        • Craighead L.
        • Lin P.H.
        • et al.
        Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study.
        Arch. Intern. Med. 2010; 170: 126-135
        • Giannini C.
        • Diesse L.
        • D'Adamo E.
        • Chiavaroli V.
        • de Giorgis T.
        • Di Iorio C.
        • et al.
        Influence of the Mediterranean diet on carotid intima-media thickness in hypercholesterolaemic children: a 12-month intervention study.
        Nutr. Metabol. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2014; 24: 75-82
        • Lamichhane A.P.
        • Liese A.D.
        • Urbina E.M.
        • Crandell J.L.
        • Jaacks L.M.
        • Dabelea D.
        • et al.
        Associations of dietary intake patterns identified using reduced rank regression with markers of arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014; 68: 1327-1333
        • Mayr H.L.
        • Thomas C.J.
        • Tierney A.C.
        • Kucianski T.
        • George E.S.
        • Ruiz-Canela M.
        • et al.
        Randomization to 6-month Mediterranean diet compared with a low-fat diet leads to improvement in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores in patients with coronary heart disease: the AUSMED Heart Trial.
        Nutr. Res. 2018; 55: 94-107
        • Archer E.
        • Blair S.N.
        Implausible data, false memories, and the status quo in dietary assessment.
        Adv Nutr. 2015; 6: 229-230
        • Ioannidis J.P.
        Implausible results in human nutrition research.
        BMJ. 2013; 347: f6698
        • Yang Y.J.
        • Kim M.K.
        • Hwang S.H.
        • Ahn Y.
        • Shim J.E.
        • Kim D.H.
        Relative validities of 3-day food records and the food frequency questionnaire.
        Nutr Res Pract. 2010; 4: 142-148