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Functional role of gut microbiota and PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease

  • Marco Bruno Morelli
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), The “Norman Fleischer” Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
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  • Xujun Wang
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), The “Norman Fleischer” Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), The “Norman Fleischer” Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
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  • Gaetano Santulli
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine (Cardiology), Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine - Montefiore University Hospital, New York, NY, USA
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), The “Norman Fleischer” Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, “Federico II” University, Naples, Italy
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      In humans, the highest density of bacteria is located in the gut, where microbiota differs throughout the gastrointestinal tract, ranging from 1 × 104 cells/g in the jejunum to 1 × 1014 cells/g in the colon [
      • Schiattarella G.G.
      • Trimarco B.
      Microbial metabolites as predictive biomarkers: a paradigm shift for cardiovascular risk stratification.
      ,
      • Hills Jr., R.D.
      • Pontefract B.A.
      • Mishcon H.R.
      • et al.
      Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease, Nutrients.
      ]. Many factors including diet, drugs, and pathological conditions can induce changes in gut microbial composition, bacterial gene transcription, and metabolism.

      Keywords

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