- •Solitary use of ankle-brachial index (ABI) underestimated the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
- •Patients with low ABI have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
- •Patients with low toe-brachial index (TBI) but normal ABI share risk factors with patients with low ABI.
Background and aims
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II).Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2007; 33: S1-S75
- Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis.J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2008; 300: 197-208
- The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and medial arterial calcification in patients with chronic renal failure: requirements for diagnostics.Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2002; 40: 472-479
- Measuring toe pressures using a portable photoplethysmograph to detect arterial disease in high-risk patients: an overview of the literature.Ostomy/Wound Manag. 2011; 57: 36-44
- Randomised diagnostic accuracy study of a fully automated portable device for diagnosing peripheral arterial disease by measuring the toe-brachial index.Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2013; 45: 57-64
- Diagnostic accuracy of laser Doppler flowmetry versus strain gauge plethysmography for segmental pressure measurement.J. Vasc. Surg. 2013; 58: 1563-1570
- The Danish National Hospital Register. A valuable source of data for modern health sciences.Dan. Med. Bull. 1999; 46: 263-268
- The predictive value of ICD-10 diagnostic coding used to assess Charlson comorbidity index conditions in the population-based Danish National Registry of Patients.BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 2011; 11 (2288-11-83)
- A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.J. Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 373-383
- Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases.J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1992; 45: 613-619
- Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: resting distal blood pressure.Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Investig. 2008; 68: 249-253
- Association of a difference in systolic blood pressure between arms with vascular disease and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet. 2012; 379: 905-914
- Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic.Fam. Med. 2005; 37: 360-363
- Editor's choice - 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the european society for vascular surgery (ESVS).Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2018; 55: 305-368
- PAD as a risk factor for mortality among patients with elevated ABI--a clinical study.Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2010; 39: 316-322
- The toe-brachial index in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease.J. Vasc. Surg. 2013; 58: 231-238
- Ankle-brachial index, toe-brachial index, and cardiovascular mortality in persons with and without diabetes mellitus.J. Vasc. Surg. 2014; 60: 390-395
- Toe pressure and toe brachial index are predictive of cardiovascular mortality, overall mortality, and amputation free survival in patients with peripheral artery disease.Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2017; 53: 696-703
- Toe-brachial index as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.Diabetologia. 2017; 60: 1883-1891
- Prevalence and risk factors of PAD among patients with elevated ABI.Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2008; 35: 709-714
- High and immeasurable ankle-brachial index as predictor of poor amputation-free survival in critical limb ischemia.J. Vasc. Surg. 2018; 67 (e3): 1864-1871
- Anatomic correlates of supra-normal ankle brachial indices.Cathet. Cardiovasc. Interv. 2013; 81: 1025-1030
- Beta blockers for peripheral arterial disease.Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2013; 9 (doi:CD005508): CD005508
- Ankle-to-brachial ratio index underestimates the prevalence of peripheral occlusive disease in diabetic patients at high risk for arterial disease.Diabetes Care. 2009; 32: e44-2015
- Elevated leg systolic pressures and arterial calcification in diabetic occlusive vascular disease.Diabetes Care. 1981; 4: 289-292
- Peripheral arterial disease in large vessels is epidemiologically distinct from small vessel disease. An analysis of risk factors.Am. J. Epidemiol. 1989; 129: 1110-1119