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Lower bone mass is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and carotid thickness in the very elderly

      Highlights

      • Population aging is rapidly increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries.
      • Incidence and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases are extremely high in the very elderly population.
      • There is no specific algorithm for the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimation in very elderly individuals.
      • It is important to assess the main risk factors that could lead very elderly individuals to manifest atherosclerotic disease, to adopt a prevention strategy.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Osteoporosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) are very common conditions among elderly people, and both represent a public health concern due to their prognostic consequences. Osteoporosis and CHD share many risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms, such as calcification pathways. Clinical evidence associates lower bone mass with cardiovascular diseases and endothelial dysfunction. Hence, this study aims to investigate whether bone mass density is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in the very elderly.

      Methods

      We performed a cross-sectional study of cohort enrolled individuals, ages 80 years or older (n = 208), who had never manifested cardiovascular diseases. Medical evaluation, blood tests, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intimal-media thickness (IMT), Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Coronary Calcium Score (CCS) were obtained. Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated by multivariate logistic regression models using CCS, FMD and IMT categories. Adjustments for covariates were done.

      Results

      Overall bone mass was independently and inversely associated with CCS categories [OR:1.68(1.16–8.85); p = 0.024] and IMT categories [OR:2.97(1.11–7.90); p = 0.030]. Conversely, overall bone mass was independent and directly associated with FMD categories [OR:2.73(1.36–70.39); p = 0.023].

      Conclusions

      This study indicates that overall bone mass is independently and inversely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and thickness of carotid in the very elderly.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

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