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Coronary artery calcium progresses rapidly and discriminates incident cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease regardless of diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

      Highlights

      • Clinicians are skeptical about prognostic role of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to confounding by altered milieu of calcium/phosphorus metabolism.
      • This study demonstrates the role of CAC in predicting and discriminating cardiovascular disease outcomes in CKD.
      • Findings are particularly relevant in CKD without diabetes mellitus, in whom lipid lowering therapies are typically underutilized.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores in discriminating incident CVD events among subpopulations of CKD, particularly those without diabetes mellitus (DM).

      Methods

      Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we identified 4 groups based on present/absent CKD/diabetes (CKD-/DM-, n = 5308; CKD-/DM+, n = 586, CKD+/DM-, n = 620; CKD+/DM+, n = 266). Baseline and follow-up CAC (Agatston units) measurements, and association between CAC and incident CVD events in median follow-up of 13 years were evaluated using proportional hazards regression adjusting for demographics, clinical, biomarker variables.

      Results

      Prevalence of CKD and DM in the cohort was 13% and 12.5% respectively. Annual progression in adjusted median CAC score was 24.8%, 27.9%, 26.7%, 36.8% and unadjusted cumulative incident CVD rates were 12.6%, 22.3%, 23.1%, 39.8% for CKD-/DM-, CKD-/DM+, CKD+/DM-, CKD+/DM+, respectively. After full adjustment (CKD-/DM-referent), hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI) for incident CVD events were 1.25 (1.01–1.53) CKD-/DM+, 1.10 (0.90–1.33) CKD+/DM- and 2.18 (1.73–2.76) CKD+/DM+. Using CKD-/DM-/baseline CAC = 0 referent, adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident CVD in CKD+/DM- were 1.30 (0.81–2.07), 2.05 (1.4–2.99), and 4.15 (2.94–5.86) for baseline CAC = 0, 1–100, and >300 Agatston units respectively while for CKD+/DM+, adjusted HRs were 3.15 (2.04–4.86), 3.56 (2.26–5.62), 7.90 (5.35–11.67), respectively.

      Conclusions

      CAC provides incremental prognostic information to predict incident CVD events in CKD regardless of DM. Moreover, baseline CAC categories discriminate incident CVD among CKD without DM, which may have implications in individualizing approach to primary prevention in this high-risk population.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

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