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SAMSON, SAMS and nocebo effects

      Statins are foundational for the management of hypercholesterolaemia to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), as reaffirmed in the 2019 European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) lipid guidelines [
      • Mach F.
      • Baigent C.
      • Catapano A.L.
      • et al.
      2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk.
      ]. A key deterrent to the efficacious use of statin therapy, however, is statin intolerance, which contributes to treatment non-adherence and/or discontinuation, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes [
      • Serban M.C.
      • Colantonio L.D.
      • Manthripragada A.D.
      • et al.
      Statin intolerance and risk of coronary heart events and all-cause mortality following myocardial infarction.
      ]. Management of statin intolerance is hampered by the heterogeneity of symptoms reported by patients, and the lack of internationally agreed clinical criteria, validated biomarkers or diagnostic tools.

      Keywords

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