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Impact of smoking on cardiovascular risk and premature ageing: Findings from the STANISLAS cohort

  • Tripti Rastogi
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Centre d'Investigation Clinique Pierre Drouin -INSERM - CHRU de Nancy, Institut lorrain du cœur et des vaisseaux Louis Mathieu, Nancy, 4, rue du Morvan, 54500, Vandœuvre-Lès-Nancy, France.
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • Nicolas Girerd
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • Zohra Lamiral
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • Emmanuel Bresso
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Inria, LORIA, Nancy, France
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  • Erwan Bozec
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • Jean-Marc Boivin
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • Patrick Rossignol
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • Faiez Zannad
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France
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  • João Pedro Ferreira
    Affiliations
    Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, INSERM 1116, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France

    Unidade de Investigaçao Cardiovascular-UnIC, Faculdade de Medicina Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
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      Highlights

      • Cigarette smoking is associated with clinical markers of premature cardiovascular ageing.
      • Smokers had higher LVMi compared to much older non-smokers.
      • Current smoking was strongly associated with plasma proteins indicating inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis.
      • Smokers had higher levels of EDIL-3, CCL11, TNFSF13B, KIT, and lower levels of IL-12B and PLTP compared to never smokers.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Smoking may lead to premature ageing, but the impact on the cardiovascular system and circulating proteins needs further investigation. In the present study, we aim to understand the impact of smoking on heart and vessels and circulating biomarkers of multiple domains including cardiovascular damage, premature ageing and cancer-related pathways.

      Methods

      The STANISLAS Cohort is a longitudinal familial cohort with detailed cardiovascular examination and biomarker assessment. This study included all the participants enrolled in the fourth visit of the STANISLAS Cohort for whom information on smoking habits was available (n = 1696). We assessed pulse wave velocity, intima-media thickness, echocardiographic parameters and a total of 460 proteins to study the association of circulating plasma proteins with smoking status (never vs. past vs. current smoking) while adjusting for potential confounders.

      Results

      Current smokers were approximately 18 years younger but had higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and similar pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), frequency of hypertension, diabetes and carotid plaques compared to the much older never smokers. After multivariate selection, 25 proteins were independently associated with current or past smoking. Current smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of EDIL-3, CCL11, TNFSF13B, KIT, and lower levels of IL-12B and PLTP (p < 0.0001) while past smoking was associated with FGF-21, CHIT1, and lower levels of CXCL10, IL1RL2 and RAGE (p < 0.01).

      Conclusions

      Current smoking is associated with signs of early onset of cardiovascular ageing and protein biomarkers that regulate inflammation, endothelial function, metabolism, oncological processes and apoptosis.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

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