- •Elevated fasting growth hormone is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
- •This association does not differ by sex or race.
- •Growth hormone may be a useful biomarker for risk stratifying individuals.
Background and aims
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Heart disease and stroke statistics—2021 update.Circulation. 2021; : 143
- Sex/gender differences in cardiovascular disease prevention.Circulation. 2011; 124: 2145-2154
- Inequalities in enrollment of women and racial minorities in trials testing uric acid lowering drugs.Nutr. Metabol. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2021; 31: 3305-3313
- Ten‐Year trends in enrollment of women and minorities in pivotal trials supporting recent US food and drug administration approval of novel cardiometabolic drugs.J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2020; 9
- Effects of growth hormone on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in human subjects.Endocr. Rev. 2009; 30: 152-177
- Growth hormone therapy in adults and children.N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 341: 1206-1216
- Growth hormone and cardiovascular risk markers.Growth Hormone IGF Res. 2003; 13: S109-S115
- Growth hormone deficiency and replacement therapy in adults: impact on survival.Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2020; 22: 125-133
- Acromegaly. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2019; 5
- Growth hormone as a risk for premature mortality in healthy subjects: data from the Paris prospective study.Bmj. 1998; 316: 1132-1133
- Fasting levels of high-sensitivity growth hormone predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2014; 64: 1452-1460
- Plasma growth hormone is a strong predictor of risk at 1 year in acute heart failure.Eur. J. Heart Fail. 2016; 18: 281-289
- Growth hormone for risk stratification and effects of therapy in acute myocardial infarction.Biomarkers. 2015; 20: 371-375
- The reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke study: objectives and design.Neuroepidemiology. 2005; 25: 135-143
- Association of race and sex with risk of incident acute coronary heart disease events.JAMA. 2012; 308: 1768-1774
- High-sensitivity chemiluminescence immunoassays for detection of growth hormone doping in sports.Clin. Chem. 2009; 55: 445-453
- Comparison of expert adjudicated coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease mortality with the national death index: results from the REasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study.J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2017; 6
- Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys.Wiley-Interscience, 2004
- Estimated 10-year stroke risk by region and race in the United States: geographic and racial differences in stroke risk.Ann. Neurol. 2008; 64: 507-513
- Natriuretic peptides as inclusion criteria in clinical trials.JACC (J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.): Heart Fail. 2020; 8: 347-358
- NT-proBNP, IGF-I and survival in patients with chronic heart failure.Growth Hormone IGF Res. 2007; 17: 288-296
- Insulin-like growth factor axis (insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3) as a prognostic predictor of heart failure: association with adiponectin.Eur. J. Heart Fail. 2010; 12: 1214-1222
- The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I system in chronic heart failure and its interaction with adiponectin.Eur. J. Heart Fail. 2010; 12: 1154-1155