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Correspondence to: “Preclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events: Do we have a consensus about the role of preclinical atherosclerosis in the prediction of cardiovascular events?”

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally.
    Julia M. Kröpfl
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally.
    Affiliations
    Division of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Grosse Allee 6, 4052, Basel, Switzerland
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally.
    Michelle Schmid
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally.
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Lab, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Patrick Schön
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Lab, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Matthias Greutmann
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Christina M. Spengler
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. ETH Zurich, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Exercise Physiology Lab, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Lab, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
    Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally.
      Endothelial dysfunction is an index of risk factor burden and an early marker of atherosclerosis. Therefore, interest exists in estimating endothelial dysfunction. Poredos and colleagues recently summarized the role of some widely publicized indicators of early atherosclerosis and also highlighted the possible importance of characterizing endothelial dysfunction on a cellular level by measuring the numbers of circulating endothelial cells (EC) and their progenitors (EPC) [
      • Poredos P.
      • Cifkova R.
      • Marie Maier J.A.
      • et al.
      Preclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events: do we have a consensus about the role of preclinical atherosclerosis in the prediction of cardiovascular events?.
      ] – likely showing an imbalance between endothelial activation and repair [
      • Rabelink T.J.
      • de Boer H.C.
      • van Zonneveld A.J.
      Endothelial activation and circulating markers of endothelial activation in kidney disease.
      ] due to apoptotic processes. We want to support and extend this hypothesis by adding some original data after acute exercise in patients with congenital heart disease of univentricular type to the literature. Inherent to the Fontan circulation is a reduced pulmonary blood flow and increased sympathetic activity [
      • Laohachai K.
      • Ayer J.
      Impairments in pulmonary function in Fontan patients: their causes and consequences.
      ] leading to increased systemic vascular resistance and endothelial dysfunction [
      • Goeder D.
      • Oberhoffer-Fritz R.
      • Brudy L.
      • et al.
      Diminished endothelial function but normal vascular structure in adults with tetralogy of fallot.
      ].

      Keywords

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      References

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        Preclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events: do we have a consensus about the role of preclinical atherosclerosis in the prediction of cardiovascular events?.
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        Impairments in pulmonary function in Fontan patients: their causes and consequences.
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